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Eukaryotic classification

By | September 1, 2007

Credit: © Eye of Science / Photo Researchers, Inc." /> Credit: © Eye of Science / Photo Researchers, Inc. The paper: S. Adl et al., "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists," J Eukaryotic Microbiol, 52:399-451, 2005. (Cited in 79 papers) The need: "The last classification endorsed by the [International Society of Protozoologists] was published in 1980," says Dennis Lynn at University of

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Pass the disruption

By | September 1, 2007

Credit: Courtesy of Michael Skinner" /> Credit: Courtesy of Michael Skinner The paper: M.D. Anway et al., "Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility," Science, 308:1466-9, 2005. (Cited in 112 papers) The finding: A group led by Michael Skinner from Washington State University briefly exposed pregnant female rats to endocrine disruptors and found sperm defects in the F1 generation of male rats, which were passe

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T-cell revival

By | September 1, 2007

Credit: © Eye of Science / Photo Researchers, Inc." /> Credit: © Eye of Science / Photo Researchers, Inc. The paper: D.L. Barber et al., "Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection," Nature, 439:682-7, 2006. (Cited in 97 papers) The finding: Rafi Ahmed at Emory Vaccine Center in Atlanta and colleagues examined microarrays from T cells that lose function during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis, a viral

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The Shape of Pathogenic Proteins

By | September 1, 2007

New details about structure and size of prion proteins reveal insights into infectivity.

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MicroRNAs abound

By | August 1, 2007

Credit: Adapted from Nature Genetics" /> Credit: Adapted from Nature Genetics The paper: I. Bentwich et al., "Identification of hundreds of conserved and nonconserved human microRNAs," Nat Gen , 37:766-70, 2005. (Cited in 148 papers) [PUBMED] The finding: Isaac Bentwich and colleagues at Rosetta Genomics upped the number of sequenced human microRNAs using a new technique integrating bioinform

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Obestatin not obvious

By | August 1, 2007

The paper: J.V. Zhang et al., "Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effect on food intake." Science , 310:996-99, 2005. (Cited in 99 papers) [PUBMED] The finding: Aaron Hsueh's group from Stanford University isolated a new peptide hormone, dubbed "obestatin." Using in vitro binding studies, the group found that obestatin served as a natural ligand for

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Stem cell regulators

By | August 1, 2007

Credit: Miodrag Stojkovic / Photo Researchers, Inc" /> Credit: Miodrag Stojkovic / Photo Researchers, Inc The paper: L. Boyer et al., "Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells," Cell , 122:947-56, 2005. (Cited in 173 papers) [PUBMED] The finding: To characterize transcriptional regulation in human embryonic stem cells Richard Young at the Whitehead Institute an

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Cognitive Clog

By | July 1, 2007

The paper: J.L. Cleary et al., "Natural oligomers of the amyloid-β protein specifically disrupt cognitive function," Nat Neurosci, 8:79?84, 2005. (Cited in 124 papers) The finding: James Cleary at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center and colleagues revealed that soluble human forms of amyloid-β oligomer (a-β), a protein implicated in Alzheimer disease, disrupted rats' memory of a learned lever-pressing task. "We didn

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Influenza pays its toll

By | July 1, 2007

Credit: © IMA / Photo Researchers, Inc." /> Credit: © IMA / Photo Researchers, Inc. The paper: L. Guillot et al., "Involvement of toll-like receptor 3 in the immune response of lung epithelial cells to double-stranded RNA and influenza A virus," J. Biol Chem, 280: 5571-80, 2005. (Cited in 82 papers) The finding: Mustapha Si-Tahar at Inserm in Paris and colleagues showed that toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays a prominent role i

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Selecting for Humans

By | July 1, 2007

Credit: Frans de Waal / Emory University" /> Credit: Frans de Waal / Emory University The paper: R. Nielsen et al., "A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees," PLoS Biol, 3:976-85, 2005. (Cited in 55 papers) The finding: Rasmus Nielsen from the University of Copenhagen and colleagues from Cornell University compared 13,731 human genes to their chimpanzee orthologs and found the strongest evidence for positive sel

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