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Old Mice Hard to Replicate

By | March 1, 2007

Credit: © Aleksandr Lukin" /> Credit: © Aleksandr Lukin The paper: S.E. Schriner et al., "Extension of murine lifespan by overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria." Science, 308:1909-11, 2005. (Cited in 107 papers) The finding: Peter Rabinovitch at the University of Washington at Seattle and his colleagues found that transgenic mice overexpressing the antioxidant enzyme catalase in their mitochondria lived nearly 20% longer and exhibi

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Tracking Tregs

By | March 1, 2007

The paper: J.D. Fontenot et al., "Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3," Immunity, 22:329-41, 2005. (Cited in 217 papers) The finding: Using a GFP-tagged knockin mouse, Alexander Rudensky's group at the University of Washington in Seattle showed that the expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 defines a subset of regulatory T cells involved in suppressing autoimmune activity. The

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Elusive envelope glycoproteins

By | February 1, 2007

Credit: © FELIX MÖCKEL" /> Credit: © FELIX MÖCKEL The paper: B. Chen et al., "Structure of an unliganded simian immunodeficiency virus gp120 core," Nature, 433:834-41, 2005. (Cited in 67 papers) The finding: Using X-ray crystallography, researchers at Harvard Medical School, led by Stephen Harrison, determined the structure, at 4 Å resolution, of the un-bound simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein-gp120.

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Retracted structures

By | February 1, 2007

The paper: C. Reyes et al., "Structure of the ABC transporter MsbA in complex with ADP vanadate and lipopolysaccharide," Science, 308:1028-31, 2005. (Cited in 79 papers) The finding: In 2001, researchers led by Geoffrey Chang of the Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif. used X-ray crystallography to model the structure of an ATP binding cassette transporter - the bacterial MsbA. After four years, research in the field continued to

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The fibril zipper

By | February 1, 2007

Credit: COURTESY OF MICHAEL SAWAYA, DAVID EISENBERG/UCLA" /> Credit: COURTESY OF MICHAEL SAWAYA, DAVID EISENBERG/UCLA The paper: R. Nelson et al., "Structure of the cross-β spine of amyloid-like fibrils," Nature, 435:773-8, 2005. (Cited in 119 papers) The finding: In 2005, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator David Eisenberg and his team at the University of California Los Angeles successfully determined the atomic structure o

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History in a grain of rice

By | January 1, 2007

Credit: PROFESSORS PIETRO M. MOTTA © TOMONORI NAGURO / PHOTO RESEARCHERS" /> Credit: PROFESSORS PIETRO M. MOTTA © TOMONORI NAGURO / PHOTO RESEARCHERS The paper: J. Yu et al., "The genomes of Oryza sativa: a history of duplications," PLoS Biol, 3: e38, 2005. (Cited in 74 papers) The finding: Using computational programs developed at the Beijing Genomics Institute, Jun Yu led a team that improved the genome assemblies of both indica and jap

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Mitochondrial immunity

By | January 1, 2007

Credit: PROFESSORS PIETRO M. MOTTA © TOMONORI NAGURO / PHOTO RESEARCHERS" /> Credit: PROFESSORS PIETRO M. MOTTA © TOMONORI NAGURO / PHOTO RESEARCHERS The paper: R.B. Seth et al., "Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-κB and IRF3." Cell, 122:669-82, 2005. (Cited in 77 papers.) The finding: The innate immune system recognizes viral infections inside cells with RIG-I and triggers type I in

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SIV attacks memory cells

By | January 1, 2007

Credit: PROFESSORS PIETRO M. MOTTA © TOMONORI NAGURO / PHOTO RESEARCHERS" /> Credit: PROFESSORS PIETRO M. MOTTA © TOMONORI NAGURO / PHOTO RESEARCHERS The paper: J.J. Mattapallil et al., "Massive infection and loss of memory CD4+ T cells in multiple tissues during acute SIV infection," Nature, 434:1093-7, 2005. (Cited in 98 papers) The finding: Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV are known to reduce CD4+ T cells dramati

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Astrocytes release glutamate

By | December 1, 2006

Hippocampal astrocyte expressing GFP Credit: Courtesy of Khaleel Bhaukaurally" />Hippocampal astrocyte expressing GFP Credit: Courtesy of Khaleel Bhaukaurally The paper: P. Bezzi et al., "Astrocytes contain a vesicular compartment that is competent for regulated exocytosis of glutamate," Nat Neurosci, 7:613-20, 2004. (Cited in 86 papers) The finding: The discovery of a clear, synaptic-like microvesicle in the adult hippocampal astrocyte, by Andr

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Leads on the obesity-diabetes link

By | December 1, 2006

Credit: © Ed Hidden" /> Credit: © Ed Hidden The paper: U. Ozcan et al., "Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes," Science, 306:457-61, Oct. 15, 2004. (cited in 111 papers) The finding: The connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes is undeniable, but also unclear. In 2004, Gökhan Hotamisligil's group at Harvard School of Public Health showed that obesity physically strains the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of

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