magazine, 71% of American men believe their dogs understand them at some telepathic level.
As formal and methodological as it sometimes appears, science remains at its heart a process of storytelling.
The entire patent system is a delicate balancing act.
Tissue engineering has taken on a new meaning in recent years, bringing the stuff of science fiction to the operating table.
Today, gene therapy, genomics, and stem cell therapy are considered to be discrete fields of research.
Courtesy of Luke A. O'NeillLuke A. O'NeillThe march to demystify mammalian immunity has been long and arduous. At the frontlines we face a dizzying array of biochemicals and interactions between multiple cell types aimed at detecting, eliminating, and remembering intruders. The regulation of this system often appears impenetrable.But recent advances in our understanding of innate immunity – that hard-wired, first line of defense that doesn't appear to adapt during infection – have se
Christoph H. WestphalCourtesy of David Shopper PhotographyMost people say this is an industry driven by how much money a drug, such as Lipitor, can bring in. I would argue that Lipitor is a great molecule, but it's the people who made the molecule the number-one selling drug on the planet. It took a talented team of chemists, clinicians, marketing executives, and regulatory experts to drive it to $4 billion in sales. The original discovery of a target is a small part of the value chain; you need
Costs fo Drugs: Discovery-ApprovalDiscovery• Target identification• Target validation• Lead identification• Lead validationPre-Clinical Studies• In vitro validation• In vivo validationPre-Clinical Studies• In vitro validation• In vivo validationClinical Trials• Phase I trials• Phase II trials• Phase III trials• Regulatory affairsPercentages represent the total cost associated with that activityThe process of discovering new
Peter MombaertsCourtesy of Peter MombaertsRarely do scientific studies claim that something is not the case. Rarer still do negative results appear in top-tier journals. Yet two recent papers in Nature describe what olfactory sensory neurons do not do.12The olfactory system is often compared to the immune system. The key cell types in each system, the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) and the lymphocyte, can detect a wide variety of chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Chemical recognition by the
In the early 1990s, my colleagues and I at Stanford University began tinkering with an interesting weed, the small flowering mustard plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We set out to study genes involved in controlling the growth and appearance of this lauded model organism, and using molecular cloning and transgenics, we identified a novel family of plant homeobox genes.This experiment proved valuable in a number of respects. First, we showed we could hasten or slow the rate of plant development by al