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Research round-up

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Diabetes and CAD

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 25 (Praxis Press) Risk factors such as smoking and hypertension explain much of the excess risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) produced by type 2 diabetes, but nontraditional factors such as albumin, fibrinogen, factor VIII, and von Willebrand factor may also increase CAD risk. To examine this relationship, Saito and colleagues performed a prospective cohort study of 1,676 middle-aged persons who had diabetes but no history of prevalent CAD. They recorded multiple risk factors

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Ethnicity and CV disease

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Rates of clinical cardiovascular (CV)disease differ among ethnic groups in Canada. Anand and colleagues studied the source of this variation in South Asian, Chinese and European Canadians. South Asian Canadians had the highest prevalence of clinical CV disease and a greater prevalence of key risk factors. However, European Canadians had the greatest degree of carotid intimal-medial thickening. Risk factors only partly explain ethnic differences in the rates of cl

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Exercise and weight-loss

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Whether weight loss resulting from exercise or diet causes the same improvement in health is unclear. It is also unknown whether exercise without weight loss provides health benefits for people who are overweight. To compare the effects of diet-induced weight loss with those of exercise-induced weight loss, and the effects of an exercise program without weight loss in obese persons, Ross and colleagues studied 52 obese men. The study participants were randomly as

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Growth hormone and CVD

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 25 (Praxis Press) Growth hormone-deficient adults are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the effect of growth hormone replacement on inflammatory and other cardiovascular risk factors is unclear. To find out whether giving growth hormone to adults with low levels of this hormone improves risk factors for CVD, Sesmilo and colleagues performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 40 men with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. They administered growth

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Inflammation and CAD

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Low-grade inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Danesh and colleagues studied the association of inflammatory markers and subsequent CAD in middle-aged British men. Coronary artery disease was associated with baseline levels of plasma C reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, and serum albumin, and baseline leukocyte counts. However, these markers were not associated with Helicobacter pylori seropositivity, Chla

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NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Left ventricular systolic function is preserved in many patients with symptoms of heart failure, often prompting a diagnosis of diastolic heart failure. Caruana and colleagues evaluated underlying causes of symptoms in patients referred for echocardiography because of suspected heart failure. In 94% of patients who did not have left ventricular systolic dysfunction, valvular disease, or atrial fibrillation, symptoms suggestive of heart failure were traced to obes

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NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) The differential diagnosis of arterial occlusive disease includes a host of conditions that cause embolism or thrombosis. Dingli and colleagues report a case of severe digital occlusive disease with an unusual infectious etiology. A woman with flulike illness subsequently developed cyanosis and pain in her fingers. Vascular studies revealed a fixed arterial occlusion, and an enzyme immunoassay revealed acute seroconversion for parvovirus B19. Parvovirus B19 infec

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NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Previous reports have documented that sodium cromoglicate has antisickling activity in vitro. Toppet and colleagues studied this antisickling activity in sickle-cell patients given sodium cromoglicate by inhalation or nasal route. Both treatments significantly decreased the percentage of sickle cells in venous blood; this effect was largely retained when the blood was deoxygenated. Sodium cromoglicate may be a clinically useful antisickling drug that has the adde

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Suplatast and asthma

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Th2 cytokines are strongly implicated in the immunopathology of asthma. Tamaoki and colleagues evaluated the steroid-sparing effect of suplatast tosilate, a selective Th2 cytokine inhibitor, relative to placebo in patients with steroid-dependent asthma. When steroid doses were halved, patients in the suplatast tosilate group had less deterioration of pulmonary function, asthma symptoms, and reliance on beta2-agonists for relief. These benefits were achieved with

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A cell of few modes

By | July 24, 2000

A mathematical re-analysis of microarray gene expression data reveals that the vast majority of expression patterns can be represented by just a few 'characteristic modes'.

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