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A cell of few modes

By | July 24, 2000

A mathematical re-analysis of microarray gene expression data reveals that the vast majority of expression patterns can be represented by just a few 'characteristic modes'.

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NEW YORK, July 18 (Praxis Press) The complexity of antiretroviral regimens may be an obstacle to adherence among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Paterson and colleagues evaluated the importance of adherence to protease inhibitor therapy among HIV-infected patients (see paper). Good adherence was associated with decreased virologic failure, fewer days of hospitalization, and fewer opportunistic infections. An adherence level of 95% was identified as a critical level

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and endoscopy

July 21, 2000

NEW YORK, July 17 (Praxis Press) Cross-sectional epidemiologic studies have disagreed about the occupational risk of Helicobacter pylori infection among gastroenterologists. Hildebrand and colleagues performed a prospective, case-control study of 54 gastroenterologists and 103 controls who were negative for H. pylori infection at baseline (paper). Seven of the gastroenterologists acquired H. pylori infection during 270 person-years of follow-up, whereas only one of the controls acquired infectio

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NEW YORK, July 20 (Praxis Press) Radiographic contrast agents can cause a reduction in renal function, possibly due to the effects of reactive oxygen species, and the usefulness of antioxidants in preventing this effect is unclear. Tepel and colleagues prospectively studied 83 patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing computed tomography with the contrast agent iopromide (see paper). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either the antioxidant, acetylcysteine, or a placebo, befor

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NEW YORK, July 19 (Praxis Press) Using serum cholesterol levels to predict coronary heart disease (CHD) and whether to treat hypercholesterolemia in people under the age of 40 is controversial. To evaluate the long-term impact of unfavorable serum cholesterol levels on risk of death from CHD, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all causes, Stamler and colleagues evaluated a total of 11,017 men aged 18 through 39 years from three large prospective studies (see paper). The researchers measured cause

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Colon-cancer screening

July 21, 2000

NEW YORK, July 20 (Praxis Press) Whether or not colonoscopy is useful in screening asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer is unclear. To determine the prevalence and risk of colonic neoplasia in asymptomatic patients, Lieberman and colleagues performed colonoscopy on 3 121 patients at 13 Veterans Affairs medical centers (see paper). Examination detected one or more neoplastic lesions in 37.5% of the patients, an adenoma with a diameter of at least 10 mm or a villous adenoma in 7.9%, an adeno

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COX-2 and renal function

July 21, 2000

NEW YORK, July 18 (Praxis Press) A new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and may produce fewer adverse effects than nonselective inhibitors. However, animal studies suggest that COX-2 is important for normal renal function. Swan and colleagues conducted a randomized, controlled trial of varied doses of rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor at therapeutic doses), indomethacin (a COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor), and placebo in elderly people on a

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NEW YORK, July 20 (Praxis Press) The association between distal colorectal polyps and advanced proximal neoplasia is uncertain. Imperiale and colleagues determined the risk of advanced proximal neoplasia among persons with distal hyperplastic or neoplastic polyps and compared the findings to those of persons with no distal polyps. To perform the study the researchers analyzed data from 1 994 asymptomatic adults who underwent colonoscopy for the first time. Of the subjects, 3.1% had advanced lesi

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NEW YORK, July 17 (Praxis Press) Familial hypercholesterolemia is an inherited condition characterized by high cholesterol levels and an increased risk of heart disease. About 1 in 500 people are affected by this condition and could benefit from cholesterol-lowering drugs. However, a recent study (see paper) found that only one quarter of affected people were being diagnosed, and children and young adults were most likely to be underdiagnosed. When a family has a history of heart disease at a yo

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NEW YORK, July 17 (Praxis Press) Studies suggest that cardiomyocytes undergo apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI), and characterization of the extent and timeline of this phenomenon might help tailor new therapeutic interventions. Hofstra and colleagues studied the uptake of technetium-99m-labelled annexin-V in the myocardium of patients with acute MI (see paper). In six of seven patients, labeled annexin-V was taken up by the infarct area only, and this area corresponded to a perfusion de

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