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Research round-up

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NEW YORK, June 20 (Praxis Press) Criteria for deciding whether patients with hyperkalemia should be treated in a hospital or as an outpatient have not been well established. Charytan and colleagues examined the current practices regarding hospitalization of patients with hyperkalemia and evaluated the criteria for admission. To perform the study they evaluated 11 patients hospitalized for hyperkalemia and compared them to 12 patients with a similar degree of hyperkalemia who were treated as outp

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NEW YORK, June 20 (Praxis Press) Lyme disease typically presents with a skin lesion called erythema migrans (EM), which may be confused with cellulitis. The first-generation cephalosporin, cephalexin monohydrate, is effective for treating bacterial cellulitis but has not been recommended or studied for treating Lyme disease. In order to describe the outcome of patients with EM when treated with cephalexin, Nowakowski and colleagues evaluated 393 patients with Lyme disease, 11 of whom were treate

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MMSE test and Alzheimer

June 20, 2000

NEW YORK, June 20 (Praxis Press) The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a widely used diagnostic tool for dementia, but its use as a predictive indicator of Alzheimer disease (AD) has not been established. Tierney and colleagues performed a study to determine the accuracy of the MMSE in predicting emergent AD patients. They also evaluated the accuracy and usefulness of an abbreviated version of the MMSE. Researchers examined 183 participants with symptoms suggestive of memory impairment and

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NEW YORK, June 20 (Praxis Press) Obstructive lung disease (OLD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but potentially treatable mild cases of OLD may often go undetected. To determine the national estimates of reported OLD and low lung function in the US adult population Mannino and colleagues examined data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) surveying 20,050 participants(see paper). Overall a mean of 6.8% of the population had low lung functi

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Warfarin and hemorrhage

June 20, 2000

NEW YORK, June 20 (Praxis Press) The major toxic effect of warfarin sodium therapy is hemorrhage, the risk of which increases with the international normalized ratio (INR) value. To examine the relationship between INR values and hemorrhage, the researchers evaluated the rate of major hemorrhage and the rate of INR decay in patients undergoing warfarin sodium therapy. Hylek and colleagues evaluated 114 patients with INRs greater than 6.0 and compared them with 268 patients with INRs in the targ

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White-coat normotension

June 20, 2000

NEW YORK, June 20 (Praxis Press) Differences between ambulatory (ABP) and office blood pressure (OBP) measurements have brought attention to the problem of misdiagnoses. Although studies have focused on white-coat hypertension (elevated OBP with normal ABP means), few studies have examined "white-coat normotension" (WCN; normal OBP with elevated ABP means). To quantitate the difference in blood pressure readings in WCN and to characterize the prevalence of WCN, Selenta and colleagues monitored 3

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NEW YORK, June 20 (Praxis Press) Women are underdiagnosed and undertreated for heart disease and stroke and their risk factors. To assess knowledge and perceptions of risks of heart disease and stroke among women in the United States, Mosca and colleagues conducted telephone surveys of US households, including an oversample of African American and Hispanic women. Out of 1000 participants, 25 years and older, only 8% of the respondents identified heart disease and stroke as their greatest health

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NEW YORK, June 19 (Praxis Press) Drugs such as aspirin, known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are thought to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but whether these drugs decrease the risk of other types of cancers is unknown. A new study showed that people taking NSAIDs were at reduced risk of esophageal, gastric, colon, and rectal cancers (see paper). But no effect was apparent on the risk of bladder, breast, and lung cancer and the risk of prostatic and pancreatic cancer was inc

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DCIS and Mammography

June 19, 2000

NEW YORK, June 19 (Praxis Press) Most women accept that a false positive result can occur with screening mammography. Few, however, have heard of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a potentially non-progressive cancer also detected by screening mammography. Schwartz and colleagues surveyed 479 women, aged 18-97 years, without a history of breast cancer (see paper). They found that women are aware of the possibility of false positive results and view them as an acceptab

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NSAIDs and GI cancer

June 19, 2000

NEW YORK, June 19 (Praxis Press) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer, but their effects on other cancers are unclear. Langman and colleagues studied cases collected in the United Kingdom's general practice research database to study the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on the risk of developing common cancers (see paper). The study group consisted of patients taking NSAIDs who were diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancers (es

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