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Carcinogen selection

By | May 10, 2001

A recent hypothesis suggests that the type of genetic instability in cancers is the result of Darwinian selection pressures exerted by specific carcinogens. In the May 8 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Bardelli et al. describe experiments to test whether chromosomal instability (CIN) is induced by bulky-adduct-forming agents, whereas microsatellite instability is selected by methylating agents (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:5770-5775). They used a variant colorectal cell line,

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Infection suppresses tumour neovascularization

By | May 10, 2001

blocked neoplastic growth in immunocompromised mice by strong suppression of tumour angiogenesis.

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Tolerance is age dependent

By | May 10, 2001

Activating a subset of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells that have escaped tolerance induces autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. This is considered a disease model for multiple sclerosis. Escaping tolerance is believed to result from sequestration of MBP within immune-privileged sites that allow only limited lymphocyte trafficking. In the April Immunity Eric Huseby and colleagues from University of Washington, Seattle show that escaping tolerance is also an age dependent mechanism.Hu

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New genetic vaccines using self-replicative RNA

By | May 9, 2001

Self-replicative RNA vaccines are capable of protecting mice against influenza A, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and a tick-borne encephalitis virus.

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Rules for receptor trafficking in the brain

By | May 9, 2001

AMPA-type glutamate synaptic receptors (AMPA-Rs) mediate a wide variety of excitatory synaptic transmissions in the brain. The mechanism by which these receptors maintain a long-term synaptic efficacy are not fully understood. In the 4 May Cell Song-Hai Shi and colleagues at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York show that AMPA-Rs in hippocampus use a number of delivery mechanisms to stabilize long-term changes in synaptic efficacy.Most hippocamic AMPA-Rs are hetero-oligomers composed of GluR1/

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Integrating genomics and proteomics

By | May 8, 2001

Large-scale methods for gene profiling or protein quantification are the focus of genomic and proteomic studies. But new approaches are needed to integrate these data sets and create biological models that can predict cellular behaviour. In the May 4 Science, Ideker and colleagues, at the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, describe an integrated approach to create a model of cellular metabolic pathways (Science 2001, 292:929-934). Their approach is based on four steps: defining all the ge

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Mouse control

By | May 8, 2001

Eleven days after Celera revealed its mouse sequence, the publicly-funded consortium claims to be there as well.

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Multi-organ cells derived from a single adult stem cell

By | May 8, 2001

Evidence exists that bone marrow cells can transform into skeletal muscle and brain tissue. In the 4 May Cell Diane Krause and colleagues at Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven have for the first time identified a haematopoietic stem cell in mice that can transform into virtually any cell type.Krause et al transplanted bone marrow haematopoietic stem cells from adult male mice into irradiated female mice, and then tested for the presence of Y chromosomes in various tissue specimens fro

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Carbon monoxide can be good for you

By | May 4, 2001

The poisonous gas CO may serve as a novel inhalation therapy able to reduce the consequences of acute lung injury.

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Nephrogenesis profiling

By | May 4, 2001

Kidney organogenesis is a complex process involving mesenchymal-epithelial transformation, branch morphogenesis and terminal differentiation. In the May 8 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stuart et al. describe a microarray analysis of 8,740 rat genes during kidney development (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:5649-5654). The authors developed data-analysis software for data equalization, statistical-significance testing and data mining. About 10% of genes were found to vary signi

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