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New adhesion mechanism in sickle cell disease

By | September 14, 2001

The characteristic pain crises and organ failure seen in sickle cell disease results from the abnormal red blood cells adhesion to the endothelium of small vessels and subsequent blood flow cessation. In September 15 Blood, Neil Matsui and colleagues from University of California at San Francisco describe a new cell adhesion mechanism involving the P-selectin molecule that could lead to improved treatments for sickle cell disease.P-selectin is an adhesion protein present on activated endothelial

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New key glucose factory controller

By | September 14, 2001

Despite the knowledge on insulin, the molecular mechanisms in the liver that maintain blood glucose levels within tight limits are not fully understood. Two papers in September 13 Nature show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 is a key molecule in the mechanism of liver glucose response to fasting and suggest that this pathway may be defective in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Yoon and colleagues from Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts found that PGC-1 i

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p53 in worms

By | September 14, 2001

Early analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome failed to detect a gene resembling the important mammalian tumour suppressor gene p53. In the September 13 ScienceXpress, Brent Derry and colleagues at the University of California at Santa Barbara report that there is a nematode p53 orthologue that is involved in apoptosis and the stress response (zdoi;10.1126/science.1065486).They named the gene cep-1 (C. elegans p53-like 1). Disrupting cep-1 expression (by mutation or RNAi experiments) had n

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Classifying carcinomas

By | September 13, 2001

Breast carcinomas can be classified into different subclasses using microarray profiling.

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S-nitrosothiols control breathing

By | September 13, 2001

signal the brain ventilatory response to hypoxia.

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Stomach ulcer bacteria behind cancer risk

By | September 13, 2001

Helicobacter pylori is present in approximately half the population of the world. It can exist innocuously for decades but is strongly implicated in the development of gastrointestinal disorders and cancers. In 13 September New England Journal of Medicine Naomi Uemura and colleagues from the Kure Kyosai Hospital, Kure, Japan examined 1,526 patients who had duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, gastric hyperplasia or nonulcer dyspepsia to ascertain how exposure to H. pylori related to incidence of can

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Aging liver

By | September 12, 2001

In the September 11 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Shelley Cao and colleagues from the University of California, Riverside, report the use of microarray analysis to investigate gene profiles associated with aging (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:10630-10635).They compared the expression of 11,000 genes in mRNA samples from the livers of young (7 months) and old (27 months) mice. The expression of 20 known genes increased with age and 26 decreased; these included genes associate

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An antibody that blows up platelets

By | September 12, 2001

independent platelet fragmentation via the induction of reactive oxygen species.

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Metastatic medulloblastoma

By | September 11, 2001

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer in children. In the Advanced Online Publication of Nature Genetics, Tobey MacDonald and colleagues from the Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, report the use of oligonucleotide expression profiling (Affymetrix G110 cancer arrays) to define a set of genes that are prognostic for medulloblastoma metastasis (DOI:10.1038/ng731).They analysed 23 primary medulloblastomas that were either metastatic (M+) or non-metastatic (M0) a

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PAR-4 is essential for clotting

By | September 11, 2001

The thrombin PAR-4 receptor found on platelets may be an important target in the treatment of thrombosis.

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