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Rules for receptor trafficking in the brain

By | May 9, 2001

AMPA-type glutamate synaptic receptors (AMPA-Rs) mediate a wide variety of excitatory synaptic transmissions in the brain. The mechanism by which these receptors maintain a long-term synaptic efficacy are not fully understood. In the 4 May Cell Song-Hai Shi and colleagues at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York show that AMPA-Rs in hippocampus use a number of delivery mechanisms to stabilize long-term changes in synaptic efficacy.Most hippocamic AMPA-Rs are hetero-oligomers composed of GluR1/

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Integrating genomics and proteomics

By | May 8, 2001

Large-scale methods for gene profiling or protein quantification are the focus of genomic and proteomic studies. But new approaches are needed to integrate these data sets and create biological models that can predict cellular behaviour. In the May 4 Science, Ideker and colleagues, at the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, describe an integrated approach to create a model of cellular metabolic pathways (Science 2001, 292:929-934). Their approach is based on four steps: defining all the ge

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Mouse control

By | May 8, 2001

Eleven days after Celera revealed its mouse sequence, the publicly-funded consortium claims to be there as well.

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Multi-organ cells derived from a single adult stem cell

By | May 8, 2001

Evidence exists that bone marrow cells can transform into skeletal muscle and brain tissue. In the 4 May Cell Diane Krause and colleagues at Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven have for the first time identified a haematopoietic stem cell in mice that can transform into virtually any cell type.Krause et al transplanted bone marrow haematopoietic stem cells from adult male mice into irradiated female mice, and then tested for the presence of Y chromosomes in various tissue specimens fro

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Carbon monoxide can be good for you

By | May 4, 2001

The poisonous gas CO may serve as a novel inhalation therapy able to reduce the consequences of acute lung injury.

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Nephrogenesis profiling

By | May 4, 2001

Kidney organogenesis is a complex process involving mesenchymal-epithelial transformation, branch morphogenesis and terminal differentiation. In the May 8 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stuart et al. describe a microarray analysis of 8,740 rat genes during kidney development (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:5649-5654). The authors developed data-analysis software for data equalization, statistical-significance testing and data mining. About 10% of genes were found to vary signi

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Neural progenitor cells from cadavers

By | May 4, 2001

In the 3 May Nature, Fred Gage and colleagues of the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California report the successful isolation and propagation of neural progenitor tissue from post-mortem brain tissue (Nature 2001, 411:42-43).Two hours post mortem brain tissue was removed from an 11-week-old neonate and a 27-year-old adult. The samples were placed in cold antibiotic-containing Hank's buffered salt solution and processed for cell culture 3 hours later. Representative sections of the hippocampus, ven

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Amplicon analysis

By | May 3, 2001

The chromosomal region 17q23 is amplified in some cancer cells and is associated with poor prognosis for breast cancer. In the May 8 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Monni et al. describe the use of genomic and microarray analysis to characterize the 17q23 amplicon in breast cancer cells (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:5711-5716). They constructed a 4 megabase contig covering the amplified region of chromosome 17, containing 17 genes and 26 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) identif

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Anorexia susceptibility gene variant identified

By | May 3, 2001

has been found more frequently in patients with anorexia nervosa than in controls.

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BDNF boost

By | May 3, 2001

In the 3 May Nature Oliver Guillin and colleagues report that the expression of the dopamine D3 receptor is regulated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein once thought to be needed simply for the proliferation and survival of neurons (Nature 2001, 411:86-89).D3 receptors are expressed mainly in an area of the brain known as the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which produce both dopamine and BDNF, connect to neurons of the nucle

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