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Annotation by SAGE

By | May 8, 2002

The inventors of SAGE technology describe a modified method to facilitate gene discovery.

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The weak point of PEO

By | May 8, 2002

causes error-prone DNA synthesis in progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

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Display of targets in multiple sclerosis

By | May 7, 2002

Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions reveals molecular mechanisms and new therapeutic targets.

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Insulin galore

By | May 7, 2002

Type I diabetes is caused by the destruction of insulin secreting cells and consequently treatments focus on either replacing or regenerating insulin production. In May Diabetes, Hideto Kojima and colleagues from Shiga University of Medical Science, Japan show that combined expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx-1) and islet factor 1 (Isl-1) can cause immature intestinal stem cells to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (Diabetes 2002, 51:1398-1408).Kojima et al. observed that

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Splicing chips

By | May 7, 2002

The process of RNA splicing by the spliceosome helps to generate molecular diversity beyond the genome sequence. In the May 3 Science, Tyson Clark and colleagues at the University of California, Santa Cruz describe a genome-wide study of splicing in yeast (Science 2002, 296:907-910).Clark et al. designed custom microarrays with oligonucleotides capable of distinguishing between spliced and unspliced RNAs, and demonstrated the specificity of this splicing-specific microarray by analysing RNA from

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The hidden transcriptome

By | May 7, 2002

Analysis of the human transcriptome is often limited to annotated sequences. In the May 3 Science, Philipp Kapranov and colleagues at Affymetrix Inc., California provide evidence for many undiscovered transcribed sequences from human chromosomes 21 and 22 (Science 2002, 296:916-919).Most microarray transcriptome analysis is based on annotated exon sequences. Kapranov et al. took an empirical approach and constructed microarrays containing 25-mer oligonucleotides spaced uniformly every 35 base-pa

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Astrocytes teach stem cells to become neurons

By | May 3, 2002

Astrocytes make up nearly half of the total number of brain cells, providing structural, metabolic and tropic support for neurons, but they were considered to play no active part in stem cell differentiation. In May 2 Nature, Hongjun Song and colleagues from The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California, show for the first time that adult astrocytes can induce neurogenesis by instructing the stem cells to adopt a neuronal fate (Nature 2002, 417:39-44).Song et al. used cell culture systems and investi

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HIV's preferences

By | May 3, 2002

HIV infection induces the loss of immunological control of HIV replication but the mechanism involved in altering HIV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses remains unresolved. In May 2 Nature, Daniel Douek and colleagues from National Institutes of Health, Maryland, USA show that the virus replicates unchecked because HIV preferentially infects HIV-specific CD4+ T cells (Nature 2002, 417:95-98).Douek et al. observed that HIV-specific memory CD4+ T cells in infected individuals contain more HIV viral DN

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Stress and alcohol

By | May 3, 2002

Alcoholism is a complex disorder with contributions from both genetic factors and environmental factors, such as stress. In the May 3 Science, Inge Sillaber and colleagues report the use of a genetic model to investigate stress-induced alcohol drinking in mice (Science 2002, 296:931-933).Sillaber et al. studied mice lacking the Crhr1 gene, encoding the receptor for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which has been implicated in stress-induced psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Mutan

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More roles for vitamin C

By | May 2, 2002

Ascorbic-acid transporter Slc23a1 and vitamin C are essential for maintaining brain integrity and perinatal survival.

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