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Unisex contraceptives

By | October 11, 2001

Calcium has long been known to be important in sperm function, but a full understanding of the molecular mechanisms of its action has remained elusive. In October 11 Nature, Dejian Ren and colleagues from Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Harvard Medical School describe a new cation channel, CatSper, which is vital to cAMP-mediated Ca2+ influx in sperm, sperm motility and fertilization.Ren et al. analyzed DNA for sequences that might code for known voltage-gated calcium channels and found a ge

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Apolipoprotein locus

By | October 10, 2001

Comparison of mouse and human genomic sequences reveals an unidentified apolipoprotein-like gene.

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Maternal tolerance

By | October 10, 2001

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) participates in the implantation of embryos and early pregnancy tolerance via pathways that remain poorly understood. In October Nature Immunology, Makrigiannakis and colleagues from University of Crete School of Medicine, Greece, show that locally produced embryonic and endometrial CRH promotes implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy primarily by killing activated T cells.Makrigiannakis et al. studied isolated primary human extravillous trophoblast

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Chromosome replication

By | October 9, 2001

The initiation of chromosome replication is exquisitely regulated in both time and location. It has been estimated that there are 200-400 autosomal replication sequence elements (ARSs) in the yeast genome that act as replication origins. Although they share some common sequence features, origins are difficult to predict from genomic sequence. In the October 5 Science, Raghuraman et al., from the University of Washington in Seattle, describe a microarray-based approach to investigate the kinetics

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Close-up on breast cancer protein

By | October 8, 2001

High-resolution structures of the N- and C-terminal regions of BRCA1 show cancer-predisposing mutations may affect the domain.

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The end of HIV-1 budding machinery

By | October 8, 2001

HIV-1 reprograms the cellular machinery and employs several unknown host proteins to bud from infected cells. In 5 October Cell, Jennifer Garrus and colleagues from University of Utah School of Medicine and Myriad Genetics, Salt Lake City show that the human tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), which functions in vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) pathway, is critical to HIV-1 budding and the progression of the disease into full-blown AIDS.Garrus et al. used small interfering RNA to stop producti

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The nitroproteome

By | October 8, 2001

Protein nitration at tyrosine is associated with dozens of pathologies, including transplant rejection, cancer and Parkinson's disease. In the October 9 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Kulzant Aulak and colleagues at The Cleveland Clinic describe the use of proteomics to explore protein nitration events during inflammatory challenge (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:12056-12061).They used a well-characterized monoclonal antibody recognizing nitrotyrosine to detect nitrated protei

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The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 2001

By | October 8, 2001

Leland Hartwell, Timothy Hunt and Sir Paul Nurse awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle.

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is a key signal for cancer treatment

By | October 5, 2001

signaling in T cells.

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The ADAMTS family

By | October 5, 2001

A deficiency in a member of the ADAMTS family of zinc metalloproteinases causes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

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