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HIV shedding

August 24, 2000

NEW YORK, August 18 (Praxis Press). The sexual transmission of HIV is a public health concern, and antiretroviral therapy has been shown in clinical trials to reduce the shedding of HIV in semen. Extending this research to the community setting, Barroso and colleagues studied the effects of antiretroviral therapy on viral shedding in semen in 93 HIV-infected men. Before antiretroviral therapy, HIV RNA was detected in 96% of blood samples and 74% of semen samples; after 6 months of therapy, HIV R

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Homeopathy

August 24, 2000

NEW YORK, August 21 (Praxis Press). Studies have suggested that homeopathic remedies improve symptoms in people with allergies, but controversy persists about the possible role of a placebo effect. Taylor and colleagues compared symptoms in 51 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis randomized to an oral, 30c dilution of a homeopathic preparation of their principal inhalant allergen or to a placebo. Over four weeks of treatment, nasal airflow improved up to 21% in patients taking the homeopath

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Nanodecoys could provide additional protection against viruses

By | August 24, 2000

Decoy cells that are able to keep viruses away from human cells could help prevent infection.

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Pap test

August 24, 2000

NEW YORK, August 22 (Praxis Press). The Pap test has dramatically reduced cervical cancer mortality in the United States, but this test's mean sensitivity for cervical abnormalities may be as low as 58% in the general screening setting. Taylor and colleagues constructed a model to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with annual conventional Pap tests and with biennial Pap tests plus speculoscopy (PPS). For hypothetical women studied between ages 18 and 65 years, biennial PPS screeni

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Transplanted neuronal cells could reverse stroke damage

By | August 24, 2000

A phase one study in which cultured human neurons were transplanted into the brains of stroke victims offers hope that new methods could be developed to restore brain function.

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Troglitazone

August 24, 2000

NEW YORK, August 18 (Praxis Press). Troglitazone, a member of a new class of antidiabetic drugs, increases insulin sensitivity and promotes adipocyte differentiation. This drug may therefore be therapeutic in patients with lipoatrophic and lipodystrophic disorders. Arioglu and colleagues studied the effects of open-label troglitazone treatment in 20 patients with lipoatrophy and insulin resistance. After 6 months of treatment, fasting triglyceride levels decreased by 2.6 mmol/L (p = 0.019); free

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Vitamin D may have preventive properties against cancer

By | August 24, 2000

LONDON, August 23 (SPIS MedWire). Vitamin D may be effective in protecting people from developing cancer. Vitamin D has not been used previously in cancer prevention because the prolonged use that would be needed could lead to osteoporosis or even death. However, a research team at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA, designed four different versions of vitamin D and tested them on mice. Dr Gary Posner reported their findings at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in Washington

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Arrays for replication

By | August 21, 2000

DNA microarrays are normally used to detect variation in mRNA abundance. But in the August 15 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Khodursky et al. use the arrays to track the progress of replication forks in Escherichia coli (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000, 97:9419-9424). In a bacterial culture that is replicating synchronously, genomic DNA from replicated regions gives a stronger array signal than unreplicated DNA. Khodursky et al. use this signal variation to show that normal replicat

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Assembling the human genome and giving it away for free

By | August 21, 2000

Entrepreneurs looking to exploit the data collected through the Human Genome Project are to face stiff competition from a project designed to allow researchers around the world to access analysed and annotated genome information for free.

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Many ways to make a breast tumor

By | August 21, 2000

In the 17 August Nature Perou et al. present a DNA microarray analysis of 65 human breast tumor specimens from 42 different individuals (Nature 2000, 406:747-752). Of the 8,102 genes analyzed, 1,753 varied in abundance at least fourfold in at least three samples. These genes could be clustered into groups that correlated with mitotic index, regulation of the interferon pathway, and the relative abundance of endothelial cells, stromal cells, adipose cells, B or T cells and macrophages. Expression

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