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Signaling for survival

By | December 8, 2000

Rhodopsin is essential for photoreceptor survival. In the 8 December Science Chang and Ready report that rhodopsin's essential function is to organize actin and thus direct the photoreceptor's morphogenesis (Science 2000, 290:1978-1980). An actin structure separates the photosensitive rhabdomere membranes from the rest of the cell; without this structure the cell collapses in on itself. Chang and Ready find that a dominant-negative Drosophila Rho guanosine triphosphatase, Drac1, mimics these deg

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Benefits from beta-blockers after heart attacks

By | December 7, 2000

Results from a computer simulation indicate that increased use of beta-blockers after a first myocardial infarction (MI) would lead to impressive gains in health and would be potentially cost saving.Kathryn Phillips and colleagues from the Institute of Health Policies Studies at the University of California used a computer simulation Markov model of coronary heart disease in the US population. In a study published in 6 December Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2000 284:2748-2754

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Gypsy at the periphery

By | December 7, 2000

Chromatin insulators protect genomic domains from chromosomal position effects and from enhancer activation, but the mechanisms by which the insulators function are largely unknown. In the November Molecular Cell Gerasimova et al. provide insights by analyzing the behavior of the gypsy insulator in diploid interphasic cells from Drosophila imaginal disks (Mol Cell 2000, 6:1025-1035). They employed three-dimensional constructions of immunofluorescence microscopy images to investigate the nuclear

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Tracking human origins

By | December 7, 2000

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is ideal for evolutionary analysis because of lack of recombination, a high substitution rate, and maternal inheritance. Previous analyses have been limited to short stretches of mtDNA, but in the 7 December Nature Ingman et al. present results based on complete mtDNA sequences of 53 humans of diverse origins (Nature 2000, 408:708-713). The greater detail allows the derivation of a phylogenetic tree for the sequences. Two pieces of data (the genetic distance between hum

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trier's

By | December 7, 2000

trier's disease in one patient.

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Why did the chicken cross the DNA?

By | December 6, 2000

Advances in transgenics and drug production are foreseen using chicken eggs, says the Roslin Institute. But why chickens?

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E. coli

By | December 5, 2000

In the December Nature Biotechnology Selinger et al. use an Escherichia coli oligonucleotide array with 30-base-pair resolution to detect antisense transcripts, new open reading frames (ORFs), and transcription starts and stops (Nat Biotechnol 2000, 18:1262-1268). The 295,936 elements of the array do not come without their problems. The sheer size and complexity of the array means that there is a huge amount of cross hybridization detected by missense probes. But the use of many probes within th

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Old flies oxidize

By | December 5, 2000

In the December 5 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Zou et al. find that only some of the processes of aging in the fly can be explained by increased oxidative stress (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000, 97:13726-13731). Zou et al. analyze expression profiles of both aging flies and young flies exposed to the free-radical generator paraquat, using microarrays of approximately 8000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that cover 30-40% of the Drosophila genome. Of these ESTs, 43 are upregulated

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Oxygen transport rate linked to plasma cholesterol levels

By | December 5, 2000

Measurements of the oxygen transport rate could provide an alternative to cardiac stress tests.

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Banking on genes

By | December 4, 2000

Various high-profile genetic projects around the world are pushing the barriers of research. But are they trespassing on human rights?

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