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AIDS-defining illnesses

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have altered clinical patterns of HIV-related diseases. Mocroft and colleagues studied the incidence and types of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) in European outpatient clinics between 1994 (pre-HAART) and 1998 (post-HAART). The incidence of ADIs declined significantly, and rates of ADIs were lower among patients receiving HAART for all CD4-cell strata. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma became one of the most

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and CAD

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Preliminary reports have noted an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary artery disease (CAD). Wald and colleagues and Danesh and colleagues studied the association between C. pneumoniae infection and subsequent CAD in large, prospective case-control studies. Baseline C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA titers were not significantly different between subjects who later suffered myocardial infarction or died from coronary heart disease and control s

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NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance to most of currently available antimalarial drugs; as a result, malaria remains a serious health problem in some tropical areas. Nosten and colleagues studied the effectiveness of combined artesunate-mefloquine treatment for the treatment of malaria in Thailand. The introduction of combined treatment countered an increasing resistance to mefloquine monotherapy and a falling cure rate. Combined artesunate-mefloquine a

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Diabetes and CAD

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 25 (Praxis Press) Risk factors such as smoking and hypertension explain much of the excess risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) produced by type 2 diabetes, but nontraditional factors such as albumin, fibrinogen, factor VIII, and von Willebrand factor may also increase CAD risk. To examine this relationship, Saito and colleagues performed a prospective cohort study of 1,676 middle-aged persons who had diabetes but no history of prevalent CAD. They recorded multiple risk factors

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Ethnicity and CV disease

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Rates of clinical cardiovascular (CV)disease differ among ethnic groups in Canada. Anand and colleagues studied the source of this variation in South Asian, Chinese and European Canadians. South Asian Canadians had the highest prevalence of clinical CV disease and a greater prevalence of key risk factors. However, European Canadians had the greatest degree of carotid intimal-medial thickening. Risk factors only partly explain ethnic differences in the rates of cl

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Exercise and weight-loss

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Whether weight loss resulting from exercise or diet causes the same improvement in health is unclear. It is also unknown whether exercise without weight loss provides health benefits for people who are overweight. To compare the effects of diet-induced weight loss with those of exercise-induced weight loss, and the effects of an exercise program without weight loss in obese persons, Ross and colleagues studied 52 obese men. The study participants were randomly as

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Growth hormone and CVD

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 25 (Praxis Press) Growth hormone-deficient adults are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the effect of growth hormone replacement on inflammatory and other cardiovascular risk factors is unclear. To find out whether giving growth hormone to adults with low levels of this hormone improves risk factors for CVD, Sesmilo and colleagues performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 40 men with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. They administered growth

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Inflammation and CAD

July 25, 2000

NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Low-grade inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Danesh and colleagues studied the association of inflammatory markers and subsequent CAD in middle-aged British men. Coronary artery disease was associated with baseline levels of plasma C reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, and serum albumin, and baseline leukocyte counts. However, these markers were not associated with Helicobacter pylori seropositivity, Chla

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NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) Left ventricular systolic function is preserved in many patients with symptoms of heart failure, often prompting a diagnosis of diastolic heart failure. Caruana and colleagues evaluated underlying causes of symptoms in patients referred for echocardiography because of suspected heart failure. In 94% of patients who did not have left ventricular systolic dysfunction, valvular disease, or atrial fibrillation, symptoms suggestive of heart failure were traced to obes

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NEW YORK, July 24 (Praxis Press) The differential diagnosis of arterial occlusive disease includes a host of conditions that cause embolism or thrombosis. Dingli and colleagues report a case of severe digital occlusive disease with an unusual infectious etiology. A woman with flulike illness subsequently developed cyanosis and pain in her fingers. Vascular studies revealed a fixed arterial occlusion, and an enzyme immunoassay revealed acute seroconversion for parvovirus B19. Parvovirus B19 infec

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