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image: How Plants Evolved Different Ways to Make Caffeine

How Plants Evolved Different Ways to Make Caffeine

By | September 21, 2016

Caffeine-producing plants use three different biochemical pathways and two different enzyme families to make the same molecule.

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image: Giant Petri Dish Displays Evolution in Space and Time

Giant Petri Dish Displays Evolution in Space and Time

By | September 8, 2016

As E. coli bacteria spread over increasingly concentrated antibiotics, researchers discover novel evolutionary pathways that confer resistance.

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image: Specialized Neurons Encode Social Learning in Humans

Specialized Neurons Encode Social Learning in Humans

By | September 6, 2016

Activity in the anterior cingulate cortex corresponds with observing the behavior of others when their actions, or the subsequent outcomes, don’t match one’s expectation.

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image: Environmental Magnetite in the Human Brain

Environmental Magnetite in the Human Brain

By | September 6, 2016

Mineral nanoparticles similar to those that have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease may enter the brain through the inhalation of polluted air.

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image: Using RNA to Amplify RNA

Using RNA to Amplify RNA

By | August 15, 2016

Researchers apply in vitro evolution to generate an RNA enzyme capable of copying and amplifying RNA.

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image: Stimulating Novel Neural Circuits in the Mouse Brain

Stimulating Novel Neural Circuits in the Mouse Brain

By | August 11, 2016

With light, researchers can coax a group of neurons in the visual cortices of living mice to fire in concert.

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image: Minding the Pulse of Memory Consolidation

Minding the Pulse of Memory Consolidation

By | July 28, 2016

Studying sleep spindles could help neuroscientists better understand certain cognitive impairments.  

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image: Neurons Compete to Form Memories

Neurons Compete to Form Memories

By | July 21, 2016

The same populations of brain cells encode memories that occur close together in time, according to new research.

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image: Primates, Gut Microbes Evolved Together

Primates, Gut Microbes Evolved Together

By | July 21, 2016

Symbiotic gut bacteria evolved and diverged along with ape and human lineages, researchers find. 

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image: How Type 2 Diabetes Affects the Brain

How Type 2 Diabetes Affects the Brain

By | July 21, 2016

The results of studies on humans and zebrafish suggest how hyperglycemia can cause cognitive deficits.

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