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Why Scientists Don't Spy

By | November 17, 1986

The arrest of Soviet physicist and U.N. employee Gennadi F. Zakharov on espionage charges this fall was the exception that proves the rule. Very little scientific spying is actually done by scientists. An FBI listing of 62 espionage prosecutions from 1945 to the present includes quite a few engineers and technicians and the expected large number of military and intelligence personnel. But other than Zakharov, who was ex changed in October for journalist Nicholas Daniloff after being indicted for

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Woods Hole: The Early Days

By | November 17, 1986

DEFINING BIOLOGY Lectures from the 1890s. Jane Maienschein, ed. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1 986. 352 pp. $25. Every Friday evening during the summer season at the Marine Bio logical Laboratory in Woods Hole, there is a general lecture for the scientific community on some aspect of biology. This custom dates from the laboratory's founding. During the 1890s, seven volumes of these lectures were published. Defining Biology reprints 10 of the lectures; they serve as a peg on which Jan

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A Universe Made of Strings? What's New?

By | October 20, 1986

Everything in the universe is made out of strings. So say the proponents of the latest theory to take physics by storm. All the basic particles of which the universe is made are tiny strings instead of points, as previously assumed. Physicists are attracted to the superstring theory because of its beautiful mathematical structure. I am attracted to it because I knew it all along. In the first place, I have seen these strings. They are luminous, and if you pull them you can watch the universe cha

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A Voice for the Science Professional

By | October 20, 1986

If there is one area about which I can claim expertise, it is the scientific journal. Whether you call them serials, periodicals, journals, newspapers or monographic series, they all add up to information overload. But just as the world must learn to deal with overpopulation, it must also learn to manage the flood of information. Recognition of that problem led me to found the Institute for Scientific Information 35 years ago. Helping scientists cope with their portion of the information over-lo

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Agencies to Alter Length, Focus of Research Briefings

By | October 20, 1986

WASHINGTON-Officials at the National Science Foundation are considering major changes in a five-year-old program that provides federal science agencies with information on research topics that are ripe for additional funding. The program was begun in 1982 at the request of George Keyworth II, former presidential science adviser and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. It enlisted researchers in an annual effort to identify a handful of fields where additional fund

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Attack on Academe

By | October 20, 1986

The Tax Reform Act of 1986 has become law. The deed is done, for universities and everyone and there seems little further point in arguing over probable effects. The question that remains is why, at a time when Congress is concerned about preserving the nation's economic competitiveness and technological leadership, did it choose to withdraw significant tax advantages from universities, institutions which, given the way American science is organized, are essential to these goals? The two most se

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Bookwatch

October 20, 1986

Forthcoming books listed here come from the latest Information available from publishers. Dates of publication, prices and numbers of pages are tentative, however, and are subject to change.   ANTHROPOLOGY/ARCHAEOLOGY COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH ANDSOCIAL CHANGE: APPLIED AN-THROPOLOGY IN ACTION. DONALD D. STULL, JEAN J. SCHENSUL, eds. Westview Press: Feb 1987, 200 p., $18.95. CITIES OF CLAY: THE GEOARCHAEOLOGY OF TELLS. ARLENE MILLER ROSEN. University of Chicago Press: Oct 1986, 192 p., $22 HB

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Chinese Move Ahead On Science Reforms

By | October 20, 1986

WASHINGTON-China is moving ahead with its reform of science and technology by weaning re search institutes from state support, rewarding scientists who develop commercial products, and encouraging proposals for basic re search from individual investigators. Wu Mingyu, vice minister in the State Science and Technology Commission, discussed these and other developments during a recent 10-day visit to the United States. Wu led a six-man delegation that gathered information on the relationship betwe

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WASHINGTON-The Association of American Universities has brought together university administrators and congressional staff in a new effort to stop the growing practice of lobbying Congress to obtain funds to build academic research facilities. Known by its detractors as pork-barrel politics, the approach has long been a favorite among those seeking dams, federal buildings and highways. Since 1983, however, it has become the favored route for dozens of universities and research facilities that ha

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Congress Hikes NIH Budget

By | October 20, 1986

WASHINGTON-The National Institutes of Health will receive an additional $910 million this year in a budget that provides for more than 6,200 new and competing grants, 21 new research centers, no lid on the total number of projects to be funded and no provision to lower the reimbursement rate for administrative indirect costs paid to universities. This good news for scientists comes as part of an agreement between House and Senate conferees on the Institutes' budget for the fiscal year that bega

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