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» neuroscience, inflammation and microbiology

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image: Bacterial Conduit

Bacterial Conduit

By | May 1, 2013

Desulfobulbaceae bacteria were recently discovered to form centimeter-long cables, containing thousands of cells that share an outer membrane.

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image: Electron Shuffle

Electron Shuffle

By | May 1, 2013

Shewanella bacteria generate energy for survival by transporting electrons to nearby mineral surfaces.

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image: Antibody-Dependent Enhanced (ADE) Immunity

Antibody-Dependent Enhanced (ADE) Immunity

By | March 2, 2013

The method to the dengue virus's maddening infectiousness.

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image: The Soil Microbiome

The Soil Microbiome

By | January 1, 2013

There's a lot more than dirt to the soil in which plants grow.

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image: Insulin's Role in Body and Brain

Insulin's Role in Body and Brain

By , , and | December 6, 2012

Insulin, long recognized as a primary regulator of blood glucose, is now also understood to play key roles in neuroplasticity, neuromodulation, and neurotrophism.

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image: Ubiquitin Chains in Action

Ubiquitin Chains in Action

By | July 1, 2012

Present in every tissue of the body, ubiquitin appears to be involved in a dizzying array of functions, from cell cycle and division to organelle and ribosome biogenesis, as well as the response to viral infection. The protein plays at least two role

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image: Inflammation, Pain, and Resolvins

Inflammation, Pain, and Resolvins

By | January 1, 2012

Not all inflammation leads to pain. Despite widespread infection followed by fever, colds rarely cause pain. But when some cytokines and certain immune cells are active near pain-sensing nerves, they trigger receptors that convey pain sensations to the brain.

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image: The Cytokine Cycle

The Cytokine Cycle

By | September 1, 2011

The initiating cause of Alzheimer’s disease is still unknown. However, from our studies it’s clear that many types of neuronal damage—­­from traumatic brain injury, to epilepsy, infection, or genetic predisposition—­can activate brain immune cells—microglia and astrocytes-- promoting them to produce IL-1 and S100 inflammatory cytokines.

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image: Helpful Bacterial Metabolites

Helpful Bacterial Metabolites

By | August 1, 2011

While gut microbiota appear to have both positive and negative impacts on our  health, in the guts of healthy, lean individuals, the good outweighs the bad.  

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image: Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

By | August 1, 2011

Gut bacteria that feed on healthy food appear to amplify the nutritional benefits of those foods. However, they also appear to amplify the undesirable effects of unhealthy food. 

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