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image: OPSINS: Tools of the trade

OPSINS: Tools of the trade

By | July 1, 2011

The optogenetic toolset is composed of genetically encoded molecules that, when targeted to specific neurons in the brain, enable the electrical activity of those neurons to be driven or silenced by light. 

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image: Exosome Basics

Exosome Basics

By | July 1, 2011

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. Internal vesicles form by the inward budding of cellular compartments known as multivesicular endosomes (MVE). 

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image: Smashing Crystals

Smashing Crystals

July 1, 2011

A powerful new X-ray–generating laser is imaging smaller crystals than ever before.

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image: The Anatomy of a High

The Anatomy of a High

By | June 3, 2011

When someone snorts or smokes cocaine, which is composed of small crystalline alkaloid molecules, the drug enters the bloodstream and from there eventually crosses into the heart, brain, and other organs. 

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image: Part Human, Part HIV

Part Human, Part HIV

By | June 3, 2011

Like other enveloped viruses, HIV exits its host cell enshrouded in the cell’s membrane, which contains membrane molecules such as the human leukocyte antigens (HLA). 

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image: Fungus Factsheet

Fungus Factsheet

By | June 3, 2011

The Last Vaccine Frontier: Successful vaccines have been created to protect against pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Why aren’t there any for combating fungal infections?   

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image: Antifungal Immune Response

Antifungal Immune Response

By | June 3, 2011

For years researchers believed that any effective antifungal vaccine would have to induce the production of antibodies.  Research studies have now shown that the cellular immune responses mediated by Th1 and Th17 cytokines are just as important. 

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image: Growth Plate Dynamics

Growth Plate Dynamics

By | June 3, 2011

The growth plate is divided into several distinct regions, each populated with cartilage cells (chondrocytes) displaying characteristic behaviors. 

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image: Mitochondria at Work

Mitochondria at Work

By | June 3, 2011

Mitochondria combine hydrogen derived from dietary carbohydrates and fats with oxygen to generate heat and ATP. 

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image: Anatomy of C. Difficile

Anatomy of C. Difficile

By | June 2, 2011

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that can cause disease when ingested. 

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