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image: Part Human, Part HIV

Part Human, Part HIV

By | June 3, 2011

Like other enveloped viruses, HIV exits its host cell enshrouded in the cell’s membrane, which contains membrane molecules such as the human leukocyte antigens (HLA). 

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image: Fungus Factsheet

Fungus Factsheet

By | June 3, 2011

The Last Vaccine Frontier: Successful vaccines have been created to protect against pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Why aren’t there any for combating fungal infections?   

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image: Antifungal Immune Response

Antifungal Immune Response

By | June 3, 2011

For years researchers believed that any effective antifungal vaccine would have to induce the production of antibodies.  Research studies have now shown that the cellular immune responses mediated by Th1 and Th17 cytokines are just as important. 

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image: Growth Plate Dynamics

Growth Plate Dynamics

By | June 3, 2011

The growth plate is divided into several distinct regions, each populated with cartilage cells (chondrocytes) displaying characteristic behaviors. 

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image: Mitochondria at Work

Mitochondria at Work

By | June 3, 2011

Mitochondria combine hydrogen derived from dietary carbohydrates and fats with oxygen to generate heat and ATP. 

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image: Anatomy of C. Difficile

Anatomy of C. Difficile

By | June 2, 2011

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that can cause disease when ingested. 

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image: Taking Aim at Melanoma

Taking Aim at Melanoma

By | April 1, 2011

Antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, elicit an immune response by displaying tumor antigens bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to circulating T-cells. Simultaneous T-cell recognition of glycoproteins CD80

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image: Molecular Targeting of BRAF Mutations

Molecular Targeting of BRAF Mutations

By | April 1, 2011

BRAF is the most commonly mutated gene associated with melanoma, found in more than 50 percent of patients. The gene encodes a cytoplasmic kinase that is a member of the MAPK signal-transduction pathway, which is activated when growth factors bind to

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image: Where Cancer and Inflammation Intersect

Where Cancer and Inflammation Intersect

By | April 1, 2011

Recent clinical trials have reignited the interest in simple anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin for controlling the inflammation associated with cancer. 

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image: Epigenetic Changes in Cancer

Epigenetic Changes in Cancer

By | March 1, 2011

In cancer cells the epigenetic landscape is highly altered. Hypermethylation of certain stretches of DNA is the most well-studied epigenetic modification in cancer, and each tumor type has its own specific pattern. Histone modifications also occur, a

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