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image: How Plants Evolved Different Ways to Make Caffeine

How Plants Evolved Different Ways to Make Caffeine

By | September 21, 2016

Caffeine-producing plants use three different biochemical pathways and two different enzyme families to make the same molecule.

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image: Further Support for Early-Life Allergen Exposure

Further Support for Early-Life Allergen Exposure

By | September 20, 2016

Egg and peanut consumption during infancy is linked to lower risk of allergy to those foods later in life, according to a meta-analysis.

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Scientists estimate the risk to fetuses exposed to the virus in utero.

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Matching the immunological characteristics of donor retinal cells to those of the recipient can reduce the chance of rejection.

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image: Neonatal Gut Bacteria Might Promote Asthma

Neonatal Gut Bacteria Might Promote Asthma

By | September 12, 2016

Byproducts of gut microbes in some 1-month–old babies trigger inflammation that is linked to later asthma development, researchers find.

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image: Designing In Vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier

Designing In Vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier

By | September 1, 2016

Choosing the right model, be it 3-D or 2-D, requires wading through varied cell sources, cell types, and cell culture conditions.

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image: The Challenges of Rare-Disease Research

The Challenges of Rare-Disease Research

By | September 1, 2016

With few resources and hesitant investors, basic scientists must rely on clinicians, patient advocates, and their own keen eye for biological connections.

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image: What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs

What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs

By | September 1, 2016

Odor, taste, and light receptors are present in many different parts of the body, and they have surprisingly diverse functions.

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image: The Flower Sense of Hawkmoths

The Flower Sense of Hawkmoths

By | September 1, 2016

The pollinators of a wild tobacco plant use the tip of their proboscis to determine whether they should stop for a drink.

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image: One Receptor, Two Ligands, Different Responses

One Receptor, Two Ligands, Different Responses

By | August 31, 2016

Host and bacterial ligands that interact with the same cell-surface receptor induce different activities in human macrophages. 

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