B.F. Skinner, 86, died of leukemia last month in Cambridge, Mass. The noted behaviorist had received a lifetime achievement award two days earlier from the American Psychological Association at its meeting in Boston, during which he offered a 15-minute address on his work.
Born in Susquehanna, Pa., in 1904, Burrhus Frederic Skinner earned his B.A. at Hamilton College in Clinton, N.Y., in 1926 and received his Ph.D. in 1931 from Harvard. He joined the psychology department at the University of Minnesota in 1936 and returned to Harvard University in 1947. He officially retired in 1974 but remained an active figure on campus and in his lab.
His two most important works are The Behavior of Organisms (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1938) and Science and Human Behavior (New York: Macmillan, 1953). Both have received an unusually high number of citations since 1966, the earliest date for which citation records are available. Science and Human Behavior was cited 1,676 times between 1966 and June 1990. For the same period, The Behavior of Organisms received 1,374 citations. Other Skinner books that have received not only high citations in the scientific community but also a wide lay readership are Beyond Freedom and Dignity (New York: Knopf, 1971) and Walden Two (New York: Macmillan, 1976).
Morley Richard Kare, 68, a pioneer in the study of smell and taste, died July 30 in Narberth, Pa. His research on the chemosensory response in human and animals led to the founding of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Kare received a bachelor's degree in science and agriculture from the University of Manitoba, a master's degree from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, and a doctorate from Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. He was an assistant professor of psychology at Cornell from 1951 to 1961, before becoming a professor at North Carolina State University in 1962. He founded Monell in 1968. Kare was both Monell's director and president until his death.
Geneticist Dorothea Bennett, 60, died August 16 in Houston. She was the former chairwoman of the zoology department at the University of Texas at Austin. Her scientific contributions include the first definition of the surface structures of sperm and their role in sperm formation and the fertilization of eggs.
Albert Bowers, 60, the former chemist who doubled the sales and tripled the profits of the Syntex Corp. during his tenure as the drug firm's chairman, died July 26 in Palo Alto, Calif. Bowers is credited with developing ways to selectively fluorinate steroids, leading to the synthesis of new topical corticoids for the treatment of skin diseases. He also developed a new synthesis of norethindrone, making possible the large-scale manufacture of the compound for use as an oral contraceptive. Bowers was born in Manchester, England. He earned his Ph.D in organic chemistry at the University of Manchester. He came to Syntex in 1956 as a group leader in research. He was elected president of the corporation in 1976 and served as its chief executive officer from 1980 through July 1989, and as chairman of the board since 1981.