Gender disparity in kidney transplantation persists in an equal-access setting.
August 16, 2000
NEW YORK, August 15 (Praxis Press). Among kidney transplantation candidates in the United States, men are more likely than women to receive a new kidney, a disparity that may be related to differences in financial status. Schaubel and colleagues compared kidney transplantation rates for 20,131 men and 13,458 women undergoing dialysis in Canada, where sex-specific differences in income and insurance were assumed to be irrelevant. Adjusted kidney transplantation rates were 20% higher for men than for women; the disparity was greater for cadaveric transplants (23%) than for living donor transplants (10%). The five-year probabilities of transplantation in men and women were 47% and 39%, respectively (p < 0.001). The gap in transplantation rates increased with age, and was less prominent in white and Asian patients and more prominent in black, Asian Indian, and North American Indian patients. Sex differences in kidney transplantation rates persist independent of patients' financial status; greater efforts are needed to ensure equal distribution of kidneys to male and female transplantation candidates.
Regularly taking breaks from eating—for hours or days—can trigger changes both expected, such as in metabolic dynamics and inflammation, and surprising, as in immune system function and cancer progression.