ATP synthase produces ATP using energy derived from proton gradients created during respiration or photosynthesis. The enzyme consists of two rotary motors, called F0 and F1. F0 is embedded in the membranes of energy-generating cellular structures, such as mitochondria, and is coupled through a common central shaft to F1, which protrudes from the membrane. Protons pumped through the F0 rotor are used to drive the rotation of F1 catalysing the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. In 19 April
"It's a remarkable accomplishment that we can now look at this internal mechanism," says Mark Schnitzer in an accompanying News and Views article.