Research fraud is treated as the whitest of white-collar crimes and until the perpetrators are punished, as the criminals they are, the rewards will continue to outweigh the risks of detection (obviously, quite low) and punishment by a sizable margin. As almost all these cases involve theft of national resources, under conditions of fraud - e. g., citing previous fraudulent data in support of continuing or new proposals, in the form of national grants, it does not seem a stretch to involve the FBI in tracking down those and itemizing the damage done. \n\nAdditionally, when calculating damages, it must be remembered that, in addition to the intangible damages, such as the reputations of institutions and others in the profession, there are also the "opportunity damages" to those who were denied grants during the same funding cycles in which the fraud was used to deprive other worthy proposals of funding. \n\nTo date, institutions and the law have treated fraudulent scientists apart from fraudulent medical practitioners - the worst of whom are, occasionally, uncovered and prosecuted. The attitude seems to have been that shame and loss of credibility "are punishments enough" and, from the institutional point-of-view, the sooner the problem is disposed of and out of the headlines, the better. \n\nThat approach, quite obviously, is not working and, more realistically and uncomfortably, places the institution in the position of aiding and abetting - with their obvious motive for complicity being continuation of the cash flow to overhead budgets from all grants received. Maybe a good first start, in addition to prosecuting the perpetrator, would be mandatory return of all grant monies, including those that were taken for overhead, by the institutions. That would get their attention in this matter. After all, where else in our society are stolen goods or money allowed to be retained - by innocent parties or not - and not recaptured for the benefit of the original owners - the grant giving agency and, ultimately, the tax payers who generously support honest scientific research.