Casman and co-workers report a "2- to 5-fold" "loss of efficiency" "as measured by the number of research papers published per millions of US research dollars awarded" in post-9/11 select-agents research and ascribe this to an "increase in the cost of doing select-agents research."\n \nThis interpretation is unsound. \n \nIn principle, a decrease in efficiency can be ascribed to a increase in cost, an decrease in benefit, or both. \n \nIn the case of post-9/11 select-agents research, there has been a massive decrease in benefit..as sub-par, sub-mediocre, select-agents research has been prioritized, funded through set-asides, and funded at unprecedented award levels. The resulting decrease in select-agents research quality--from mediocre under the easy-money environment in effect for select-agents research from FY1992-FY2002 to sub-mediocre under the free-money environment put in effect for select-agents research in FY2003--is more than sufficient to account for the observed decrease in efficiency.