Top 7 in biochemistry

A snapshot of the most highly ranked articles in biochemistry, from Faculty of 1000

By | November 30, 2010

linkurl:1. New role for non-coding RNA;http://f1000.com/5601958?key=gqh9xf05njf034l Some long non-coding RNAs are required for the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes in humans — yet another role the mysterious non-coding transcriptome plays in regulating gene expression. U.A. Ørom et al., linkurl:Cell,;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/20887892?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000%2Cf1000m 143:46-58, 2010. Evaluated by Leonie Ringrose, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology; A. Clery, D. Theler, and F. Allain, ETH; J. Abrams, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas; E. Lara-Pezzi and N. Rosenthal, EMBL. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;http://f1000.com/5601958?key=gqh9xf05njf034l
E. coli
Image: Wikimedia commons, NIAID
linkurl:2. It takes three to replicate;http://f1000.com/3176956?key=c2pndjc7fv2tqm0 Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, researchers observed for the first time the DNA replication machinery at work in living E. coli cells in real time. The novel technique revealed that DNA replication in the bacterium requires the concerted action of three, and not two (as previously thought), polymerases. R. Reyes-Lamothe et al., linkurl:Science,;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/20413500?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000%2Cf1000m 328:498-501, 2010. Evaluated by Martin Marinus, UMass Medical School; Sabine Müller, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald; Manju Hingorani, Wesleyan Univ; Gottfried Otting, Australian National Univ. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;http://f1000.com/3176956?key=c2pndjc7fv2tqm0 linkurl:3. Folding, at atomic-scale;http://f1000.com/5964957?key=4ysrnn7m1b32fzs Researchers simulate the folding of proteins, while keeping track of every atom, using a specially designed supercomputer named Anton. The simulations track the virtual proteins for up to 1 millisecond — nearly 100 times longer than what previous simulations have achieved. D.E. Shaw, et al., linkurl:Science,;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/20947758?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000%2Cf1000m 330:341-6, 2010. Evaluations by Gottfried Otting, Australian National Univ; Torleif Härd, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;http://f1000.com/5964957?key=4ysrnn7m1b32fzs linkurl:4. Tricky proteins targeted;http://f1000.com/5551957?key=r1gp8s999h9cpvt Proteins that have phosphate groups attached to their histidines have been notoriously hard to study because phosphorylated histidines are highly unstable species, making them difficult targets. To circumvent this, researchers synthesized a stable phosphohistidine analog and used it to develop the first antibody capable of recognizing proteins bearing the phosphorylated amino acid. J.M. Kee, et al., linkurl:J Am Chem Soc,;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/20879710?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000%2Cf1000m 132:14327-9, 2010. Evaluations by Michael Gelb, Univ. Washington; Derek Macmillan, Macromolecular Chemistry, UK; Michael Pirrung, UC Riverside. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;http://f1000.com/5551957?key=r1gp8s999h9cpvt linkurl:5. Defense mechanism elucidated;http://f1000.com/5302957?key=141vmd9c3xl6gf2 Hardwired into the genomes of prokaryotes are pieces of foreign DNA cells use to recognize and ward off new invading genetic material, and new research uncovers more molecular clues of how the process works. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the endoribonuclease Csy4 processes the raw RNA transcripts produced by these sequences, while a family of proteins called Cas use these RNAs to silence the matching invader. R.E. Haurwitz, et al., linkurl:Science,;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/20829488?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000%2Cf1000m 329:1355-8, 2010. Evaluations by Rachel Senturia and Feng Guo, UCLA; Jim Maher, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine; Robert Batey, U Colorado at Boulder. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;http://f1000.com/5302957?key=141vmd9c3xl6gf2
Heme group B
Image: Wikimedia commons, Ronk01
linkurl:6. How cells traffic heme;http://f1000.com/5629978?key=2j836pdzv4lsxcd Better known for its enzymatic role in glycolysis, GAPDH also carries out the crucial function of delivering the heme group (a central component of hemoproteins such as hemoglobin) to the heme-containing nitric oxide synthase — thus becoming the first mammalian "heme chaperone" to be identified. R. Chakravarti, et al., linkurl:PNAS,;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/20921417?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000%2Cf1000m 107:18004-9, 2010. Evaluations by David Wink, National Cancer Institute; Jack Lancaster, U Alabama at Birmingham. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;http://f1000.com/5629978?key=2j836pdzv4lsxcd linkurl:7. Keys to splitting chromosomes;http://f1000.com/1910956?key=yjj6nfwxv4zhzbq Two key steps are required to efficiently separate chromosomes during the metaphase and anaphase stages of mitosis: the cleaving of a ring-shaped complex called cohesin and the inhibition of the kinase Cdk1. R.A. Oliveira et al., linkurl:Nat Cell Bio,;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/20081838?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000%2Cf1000m 12:185-92, 2010. Evaluations by Tony Maxwell, John Innes Centre, UK; Gennaro D'Urso, U Miami School of Med; Hanna Windecker and Silke Hauf, Max Planck Society. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;http://f1000.com/1910956?key=yjj6nfwxv4zhzbq The F1000 Top 7 is a snapshot of the highest ranked articles from a 30-day period on Faculty of 1000 Biochemistry, as calculated on November 29, 2010. Faculty Members evaluate and rate the most important papers in their field. To see the latest rankings, search the database, and read daily evaluations, visit linkurl:http://f1000.com.;http://f1000.com
**__Related stories:__***linkurl:Top 7 immunology papers;http://www.the-scientist.com/news/display/57819/
[23rd November 2010]*linkurl:Top 7 papers in medicine;http://www.the-scientist.com/news/display/57810/
[16th November 2010]*linkurl:Top 7 genetics papers;http://www.the-scientist.com/news/display/57794/
[2nd November 2010]

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