The most readily available biofilm for study is on our teeth. 30 years of clinical study shows how xylitol affects this biofilm and prevents up to 80% of tooth decay when used orally 5 times a day.\nIt's effect on strep species, mutans orally and pneumoniae nasally, has been demonstrated by researchers at Wayne State. My own experience in my medical practice using it nasally at every diaper change is a 92% reduction in recurrent ear complaints. It seems to optimize our own nasal defenses (see Zabner's work at the Univ of Iowa) as well as unhook bacterial adherence. See Wolcott's work with wounds: a 20% solution of xylitol prevents biofilm formation.\n\nThe problem, of course is that xylitol is a common, natural sugar-like food with therefore no future as a drug. Same with mannose; see the years of trying to promote its use to prevent E coli UTIs by the early lectin researcher Nathan Sharon.\n\nToo bad our system needs profits to make drugs.