Although mutation is a generally acceptable phenomenon that leads to phenotypic changes, it is not always the case. In fact most phenotypic changes occur on the level of proteins. This arises as a result of post-translational modification.\n\nThe environment in which we live has a big impact on modification of proteins required for a given function or adaptation. This means, there may not have been any mutation.\n\nScientists now need to move beyond the dogma that phenotypic changes occur as a result of mutation.\n\nMethylation is a well-known form of post-translational modification. However, there are other types of post-translational modification, and these are responsible for, for example, coloration.\n\nWhat we now need to do is to find out what these modifications are.