A long-standing model of bacterial infection is challenged when researchers show that virulence factors can be transferred to host cells from the surface of the pathogen rather than from its cytosol, suggesting new targets for vaccine and therapy design.
K. Akopyan et al., "Translocation of surface-localized effectors in type III secretion," PNAS,108:1639-44, 2011. Evaluated by Arto Pulliainen and Christoph Dehio, Biozentrum, Univ of Basel, Switzerland; Fabio Bagnoli and Rino Rappuoli, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, Italy; Raphael Valdivia, Duke Univ Med Cntr; Olivia Steele-Mortimer, Rocky Mountain Labs, NIAID; Mélanie Hamon and Pascale Cossart, Inst Pasteur, France; Peter Hume and Vassilis Koronakis, Univ of Cambridge, UK.
Macrophages that engulf dead cancer cells may play a bigger role in activating tumor-killing T cells than dendritic cells, a result that could inform vaccine and immunotherapy design aimed at triggering immunity against cancer.
K. Asano et al., "CD169-positive macrophages dominate antitumor immunity by crosspresenting dead cell-associated antigens," Immunity, 34:85-95, 2011. Evaluated by Xiaojing Ma, Weill Med Col of Cornell Univ; Lieping Chen, Yale Univ Sch of Med; Peter Van Endert, Inst National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, France; Peter Murray, St. Jude Children's Res Hosp; Christian Engwerda, Queensland Inst of Med Res, Australia; David Kranz, Univ of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Streptococcus pneumonia adapts to clinical interventions, including vaccination, more quickly than researchers assumed, shedding light on impact of medical intervention on the evolution of this multi-drug resistant strain of bacteria.
N.J. Croucher et al., "Rapid pneumococcal evolution in response to clinical interventions," Science, 331:430-34, 2011. Evaluated by Scott Chancey and David Stephens, Emory Univ; Mark Enright, Biocontrol Limited., UK.
Immune-suppressive T-regulatory cells can switch gears and become immune activating and play a critical role in the adaptive immune response. However this process can be subverted by cancer cells, which thrive under immune-suppressed conditions.
M.D. Sharma et al., "Reprogrammed foxp3(+) regulatory T cells provide essential help to support cross-presentation and CD8(+) T cell priming in naive mice," Immunity, 33:942-54, 2010. Evaluated by Mark Doherty, Statens Serum Inst, Denmark; Ru Zhou and Rachel R Caspi, National Eye Institute, NIH; Thomas Huenig, Univ of Wurzberg, Germany.
Alum, a generic immune-stimulant added to vaccines, is a crystal whose mode of action has long been a mystery. Researchers now show that it functions by latching on to the lipids on dendritic cells (DC) which forces uptake of the vaccine antigen and subsequent DC-mediated immune activation.
T. L. Flach et al., "Alum interaction with dendritic cell membrane lipids is essential for its adjuvanticity," Nat Med, 17:479-87, 2011. Evaluated by Mark Doherty, Statens Serum Inst, Denmark; David Underhill, Cedars-Sinai Med Cent.
Researchers discover a new life-threatening virus, called SFTS bunyavirus, in 171 patient samples from China. It is named after the disease it causes, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, characterized by low platelet count and gastrointenstinal symptoms.
X.J. Yu et al., "Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China," N Engl J Med, 364:1523-32, 2011. Evaluated by Charles Chiu, UCSF; David Wang, Washington Univ in St. Louis.
A study of over 100,000 Australian patients, verified the efficacy of an HPV vaccine that protects against genital-wart and cancer-causing strains. A nearly 60 percent reduction of genital wart cases was observed in women after the government-funded vaccination program began.
B. Donovan et al., "Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination and trends in genital warts in Australia: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data," Lancet Infect Dis, 11:39-44, 2011. Evaluated by Christian Wejse and Lars Ostergaard Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
The F1000 Top 7 is a snapshot of the highest ranked articles on vaccination from a 180-day period on Faculty of 1000, as calculated on May 25, 2011. Faculty Members evaluate and rate the most important papers in their field. To see the latest rankings, search the database, and read daily evaluations, visit http://f1000.com.