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Epigenetics—A Primer

Epigenetic events regulate the activities of genes without changing the DNA sequence. Different genes are expressed depending on the methyl-marks attached to DNA itself and by changes in the structure and/or composition of chromatin. 

By | March 1, 2011

Infographic: Epigenetics: A Primer
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ILLUSTRATION ©2011 TOLPA STUDIOS, INC.

Epigenetic events regulate the activities of genes without changing the DNA sequence. Different genes are expressed depending on the methyl-marks attached to DNA itself and by changes in the structure and/or composition of chromatin. The main components of chromatin are histones (in bundles of eight units) around which 146 base-pairs of DNA are wound like a thread around a spool, forming a structure called the nucleosome. There are various epigenetic mechanisms that can affect the nucleosome: chemical modification (via molecular additions to histone tails or DNA), a change its positioning on DNA (via chromatin remodeling proteins), or a variation in histone subtypes.

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Avatar of: Dov

Dov

Posts: 1457

June 25, 2011

Why We Don't Know That Epigenetics YOK...

 
 
 “how species come to be…â€쳌
http://www.sciencenews.org/ind...
 
 
What drives “species come to beâ€쳌 is what drives all life/organisms to come to be,  i.e.  a proven successful route, circumstantially evolved culture, that enhanced the RNAs’ constrained energy by the culturally enhanced  RNAs’ proliferation, followed with accordingly alternatively spliced expression.
 
This is evolution, i.e. enhanced constrained energy to delay-postpone the universal conversion of mass-formats to energy, to the energy that keeps fueling the expansion of the universe. This expansion will be overcome by gravity upon depletion of the universe’s massfuel, and will be followed by empansion for accelerating reverting of energy to mass all the way back to singularity. The universe is an allmass allenergy poles affair.
 
Dov Henis
(comments from 22nd century)
 
PS:
- It's culture that modifies genetics, that changes gene's expression.  NOT vice versa.
- Epigenetics YOK. Alternative splicing is epiDNAtic, not epigenetic.
- ALL life is RNAs evolution products. RNAs are Earth's prime organism.
 
DH
 
================================================
 
Update Comprehension Of Universe/Life Evolution, Of RNA/DNA Mismatch-Relationship
 
Genome is evolved by-for RNAs, like all other Earth organisms:
 
THE National Science And Technology Policy ISSUE In The USA (And Therefore Elsewhere...):
 
 
The early 20th century brief burst of scientific evolution started expiring 90 years ago, at the birth of the "scientists" (what does this mean?) trade-union AAAS.  True to the AAAS trade-union interests the scientific evolution has grown into the technology-industrial evolution, with evolved counter-enlightenment, greed culture.
 
Re Science Education, it's about WHAT, not about HOW, is taught.
"Scientists" tradeunion-politically-controled "science" cannot be advanced/updated regardless of education system...
See the C signature link...
 
Unravel Some Of Nature's Complexities, A + B + C
(adnauseam, ad shown where these data-based statements are wrong)
 
 
A.
 
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS.
Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes, BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
Again, Correct Some Figments Of Science Imagination
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
 
1. Dark energy and matter YOK. Per  E=Total[m(1 + D)]  all the energy and matter of the universe are accounted for.
Adopt space-massdistance concept, mass-to-energy reconversion. 
 
2. Higgs Particle YOK. Mass forms below some value of the above D.
 
3. Galactic clusters formed by conglomeration?
Galactic clusters formed by Big-Bang's dispersion, evidenced by their Newtonian behaviour including expansion acceleration.
 
4. The universe expansion is fueled by the mass-to-enrgy reconversion. Eventually, as expansion will slow down, will run out of massfuel, gravity will overcome expansion and initiate empansion back to singularity. The universe is a cyclic array of energy-mass dualism, between all-energy and all-mass poles, under omnipresent gravity.
 
5. Natural Selection is a trait of organisms, life?
No. Natural selection is ubiquitous for ALL mass formats, all spin arrays. It derives from the expansion of the universe. All mass formats, regardless of size and type, from black holes to smallest particles, strive to increase their constrained energy in attempt to postpone their own reconversion to energy, to the energy that fuels cosmic expansion.
 
6. Life is an enigma?
Life is just another type of mass array, a self-replicating mass array. Earth life is a replicating RNAs mass. It has always been and still is an RNA world. ALL Earth's organisms are evolved RNAs, evolved for maintaining-enhancing Earth's biosphere, for prolonging RNAs survival.
 
7. Cells are Earth-life's primal organisms?
NO. Earth's life day one was the day on which RNA began replicating. RNAs, genes, are ORGANISMS. And so are their evolved templates, (RNA and DNA) genomes, ORGANISMS, as evidenced by life's chirality and by life's sleep.
 
8. Circadian Schmircadian sleep origin?
Sleep is inherent for life via the RNAs, the primal Earth ORGANISMS originated and originally active only under direct sunlight, in their pre-metabolism genesis era.
 
9. Epigenetics are heritable gene functions changes not involving changes in DNA sequence?
The "heritable or enduring changes" are epiDNAtics, not epigenetics. Alternative splicing is not epigenetics, even if/when not involving alteration of the DNA sequence. Earth life is an RNA world.
 
10.Genetics drive biology and culture modifications?
NO. It is culture that modifies genetics, not genetics that modifies culture. Culture modifies genetics simply via the evolutionary natural selection process of the RNA ORGANISMS. Likewise many natural genetic changes are due to aging and/or circumstantial effects on the genes and/or genomes ORGANISMS, similar to aging and/or evolutionary processes in monocell communities or in multicelled organisms.
 
 
SCIENCE SHOULD UNFREEZE. SCIENCE SHOULD ADJUST ITS VISION, COMPREHENSION AND CONCEPTS.
 
 
Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
 
Seed of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
http://www.the-scientist.com/c...
Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion
http://darwiniana.com/2010/09/...
Rethink Evolution/Natural Selection
http://darwiniana.com/2011/03/...
 
==========================
 
B.
 
Quantum Mechanics Of Life
Life's Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
 
From "Essence Of Quantum Mechanics"
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
The universe, and life within it, are not just conglomerations of mechanisms. The universe, and life within it, have come into being by the nature of energy-mass dualism, and their fate, their final outcome, is governed by this dualism. The genesis and, most probable cyclic, existence of the universe are governed by the energy-mass relationship.
 
Energy-mass relationship governs also the routes, the mechanisms, of cosmic and life evolutions.
 
Mechanisms do not set/determine the classical physics fate states. Mechanisms are routes of evolution between classical physics fate states. Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, probable, possible and actual mechanisms of getting from one to other classical physics states WITHIN the expanse from cosmic singularity to the maximum expanded universe and back to singularity states.
 
The universe is the archetype of quantum within classical physics. This is the fractal oneness of the universe. Astronomically there are two physics. A classical Newtonian physics behaviour of and between galactic clusters, and a quantum physics behaviour WITHIN the galactic clusters.
 
Life's Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology.
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS. Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes.
BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
The origin-reason and the purpose-fate of life are mechanistic, ethically and practically valueless. Life is the cheapest commodity on Earth. Human life is just one of many nature's routes for the natural survival of RNAs, the base Earth organism.
 
It is up to humans themselves to elect the purpose and format of their life as individuals and as group-members.
 
 
Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
Inception And Prevalence Of Western Monotheism
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
http://darwiniana.com/2011/04/...
=============================
 
C.
 
Adaptation And Genetics
Identify USA Science Problems
Enough Is Enough!
 
 
Concluding phrase of "A New Evolutionary History of Primates"
http://www.sciencedaily.com/re...
 
"genetic underpinnings of human adaptation"
 
This phrase displays basic ignorance of the relationship between genetics and physiology/system adaptation.
It should be replaced with "adaptation underpinnings of human genetics".
 
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS.
Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes, BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
IT IS ADAPTATION (CULTURE) THAT INDUCES GENES' EXPRESSION MODIFICATION, NOT GENETICS THAT INDUCES ADAPTATION. Modified genetic expression proceeds to energetically favor/enable adaptation.
 
 
Dov Henis
(comments from 22nd century)
Hope For Science?
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
PS: How have the USA government and nation/public come to allow a plainly obvious ("scientists", whatever it means) trade-union, AAAS, to be involved in a host of national policies and budgets matters? The motives/interests of the AAAS, just another trade-union, are NOT always/necessarily congruent with the nation's/public welfare and it definitely hinders very effectively advancement of basic science...DH

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

June 25, 2011

Why We Don't Know That Epigenetics YOK...

 
 
 “how species come to be…â€쳌
http://www.sciencenews.org/ind...
 
 
What drives “species come to beâ€쳌 is what drives all life/organisms to come to be,  i.e.  a proven successful route, circumstantially evolved culture, that enhanced the RNAs’ constrained energy by the culturally enhanced  RNAs’ proliferation, followed with accordingly alternatively spliced expression.
 
This is evolution, i.e. enhanced constrained energy to delay-postpone the universal conversion of mass-formats to energy, to the energy that keeps fueling the expansion of the universe. This expansion will be overcome by gravity upon depletion of the universe’s massfuel, and will be followed by empansion for accelerating reverting of energy to mass all the way back to singularity. The universe is an allmass allenergy poles affair.
 
Dov Henis
(comments from 22nd century)
 
PS:
- It's culture that modifies genetics, that changes gene's expression.  NOT vice versa.
- Epigenetics YOK. Alternative splicing is epiDNAtic, not epigenetic.
- ALL life is RNAs evolution products. RNAs are Earth's prime organism.
 
DH
 
================================================
 
Update Comprehension Of Universe/Life Evolution, Of RNA/DNA Mismatch-Relationship
 
Genome is evolved by-for RNAs, like all other Earth organisms:
 
THE National Science And Technology Policy ISSUE In The USA (And Therefore Elsewhere...):
 
 
The early 20th century brief burst of scientific evolution started expiring 90 years ago, at the birth of the "scientists" (what does this mean?) trade-union AAAS.  True to the AAAS trade-union interests the scientific evolution has grown into the technology-industrial evolution, with evolved counter-enlightenment, greed culture.
 
Re Science Education, it's about WHAT, not about HOW, is taught.
"Scientists" tradeunion-politically-controled "science" cannot be advanced/updated regardless of education system...
See the C signature link...
 
Unravel Some Of Nature's Complexities, A + B + C
(adnauseam, ad shown where these data-based statements are wrong)
 
 
A.
 
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS.
Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes, BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
Again, Correct Some Figments Of Science Imagination
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
 
1. Dark energy and matter YOK. Per  E=Total[m(1 + D)]  all the energy and matter of the universe are accounted for.
Adopt space-massdistance concept, mass-to-energy reconversion. 
 
2. Higgs Particle YOK. Mass forms below some value of the above D.
 
3. Galactic clusters formed by conglomeration?
Galactic clusters formed by Big-Bang's dispersion, evidenced by their Newtonian behaviour including expansion acceleration.
 
4. The universe expansion is fueled by the mass-to-enrgy reconversion. Eventually, as expansion will slow down, will run out of massfuel, gravity will overcome expansion and initiate empansion back to singularity. The universe is a cyclic array of energy-mass dualism, between all-energy and all-mass poles, under omnipresent gravity.
 
5. Natural Selection is a trait of organisms, life?
No. Natural selection is ubiquitous for ALL mass formats, all spin arrays. It derives from the expansion of the universe. All mass formats, regardless of size and type, from black holes to smallest particles, strive to increase their constrained energy in attempt to postpone their own reconversion to energy, to the energy that fuels cosmic expansion.
 
6. Life is an enigma?
Life is just another type of mass array, a self-replicating mass array. Earth life is a replicating RNAs mass. It has always been and still is an RNA world. ALL Earth's organisms are evolved RNAs, evolved for maintaining-enhancing Earth's biosphere, for prolonging RNAs survival.
 
7. Cells are Earth-life's primal organisms?
NO. Earth's life day one was the day on which RNA began replicating. RNAs, genes, are ORGANISMS. And so are their evolved templates, (RNA and DNA) genomes, ORGANISMS, as evidenced by life's chirality and by life's sleep.
 
8. Circadian Schmircadian sleep origin?
Sleep is inherent for life via the RNAs, the primal Earth ORGANISMS originated and originally active only under direct sunlight, in their pre-metabolism genesis era.
 
9. Epigenetics are heritable gene functions changes not involving changes in DNA sequence?
The "heritable or enduring changes" are epiDNAtics, not epigenetics. Alternative splicing is not epigenetics, even if/when not involving alteration of the DNA sequence. Earth life is an RNA world.
 
10.Genetics drive biology and culture modifications?
NO. It is culture that modifies genetics, not genetics that modifies culture. Culture modifies genetics simply via the evolutionary natural selection process of the RNA ORGANISMS. Likewise many natural genetic changes are due to aging and/or circumstantial effects on the genes and/or genomes ORGANISMS, similar to aging and/or evolutionary processes in monocell communities or in multicelled organisms.
 
 
SCIENCE SHOULD UNFREEZE. SCIENCE SHOULD ADJUST ITS VISION, COMPREHENSION AND CONCEPTS.
 
 
Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
 
Seed of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
http://www.the-scientist.com/c...
Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion
http://darwiniana.com/2010/09/...
Rethink Evolution/Natural Selection
http://darwiniana.com/2011/03/...
 
==========================
 
B.
 
Quantum Mechanics Of Life
Life's Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
 
From "Essence Of Quantum Mechanics"
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
The universe, and life within it, are not just conglomerations of mechanisms. The universe, and life within it, have come into being by the nature of energy-mass dualism, and their fate, their final outcome, is governed by this dualism. The genesis and, most probable cyclic, existence of the universe are governed by the energy-mass relationship.
 
Energy-mass relationship governs also the routes, the mechanisms, of cosmic and life evolutions.
 
Mechanisms do not set/determine the classical physics fate states. Mechanisms are routes of evolution between classical physics fate states. Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, probable, possible and actual mechanisms of getting from one to other classical physics states WITHIN the expanse from cosmic singularity to the maximum expanded universe and back to singularity states.
 
The universe is the archetype of quantum within classical physics. This is the fractal oneness of the universe. Astronomically there are two physics. A classical Newtonian physics behaviour of and between galactic clusters, and a quantum physics behaviour WITHIN the galactic clusters.
 
Life's Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology.
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS. Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes.
BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
The origin-reason and the purpose-fate of life are mechanistic, ethically and practically valueless. Life is the cheapest commodity on Earth. Human life is just one of many nature's routes for the natural survival of RNAs, the base Earth organism.
 
It is up to humans themselves to elect the purpose and format of their life as individuals and as group-members.
 
 
Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
Inception And Prevalence Of Western Monotheism
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
http://darwiniana.com/2011/04/...
=============================
 
C.
 
Adaptation And Genetics
Identify USA Science Problems
Enough Is Enough!
 
 
Concluding phrase of "A New Evolutionary History of Primates"
http://www.sciencedaily.com/re...
 
"genetic underpinnings of human adaptation"
 
This phrase displays basic ignorance of the relationship between genetics and physiology/system adaptation.
It should be replaced with "adaptation underpinnings of human genetics".
 
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS.
Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes, BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
IT IS ADAPTATION (CULTURE) THAT INDUCES GENES' EXPRESSION MODIFICATION, NOT GENETICS THAT INDUCES ADAPTATION. Modified genetic expression proceeds to energetically favor/enable adaptation.
 
 
Dov Henis
(comments from 22nd century)
Hope For Science?
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
PS: How have the USA government and nation/public come to allow a plainly obvious ("scientists", whatever it means) trade-union, AAAS, to be involved in a host of national policies and budgets matters? The motives/interests of the AAAS, just another trade-union, are NOT always/necessarily congruent with the nation's/public welfare and it definitely hinders very effectively advancement of basic science...DH

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

June 25, 2011

Why We Don't Know That Epigenetics YOK...

 
 
 “how species come to be…â€쳌
http://www.sciencenews.org/ind...
 
 
What drives “species come to beâ€쳌 is what drives all life/organisms to come to be,  i.e.  a proven successful route, circumstantially evolved culture, that enhanced the RNAs’ constrained energy by the culturally enhanced  RNAs’ proliferation, followed with accordingly alternatively spliced expression.
 
This is evolution, i.e. enhanced constrained energy to delay-postpone the universal conversion of mass-formats to energy, to the energy that keeps fueling the expansion of the universe. This expansion will be overcome by gravity upon depletion of the universe’s massfuel, and will be followed by empansion for accelerating reverting of energy to mass all the way back to singularity. The universe is an allmass allenergy poles affair.
 
Dov Henis
(comments from 22nd century)
 
PS:
- It's culture that modifies genetics, that changes gene's expression.  NOT vice versa.
- Epigenetics YOK. Alternative splicing is epiDNAtic, not epigenetic.
- ALL life is RNAs evolution products. RNAs are Earth's prime organism.
 
DH
 
================================================
 
Update Comprehension Of Universe/Life Evolution, Of RNA/DNA Mismatch-Relationship
 
Genome is evolved by-for RNAs, like all other Earth organisms:
 
THE National Science And Technology Policy ISSUE In The USA (And Therefore Elsewhere...):
 
 
The early 20th century brief burst of scientific evolution started expiring 90 years ago, at the birth of the "scientists" (what does this mean?) trade-union AAAS.  True to the AAAS trade-union interests the scientific evolution has grown into the technology-industrial evolution, with evolved counter-enlightenment, greed culture.
 
Re Science Education, it's about WHAT, not about HOW, is taught.
"Scientists" tradeunion-politically-controled "science" cannot be advanced/updated regardless of education system...
See the C signature link...
 
Unravel Some Of Nature's Complexities, A + B + C
(adnauseam, ad shown where these data-based statements are wrong)
 
 
A.
 
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS.
Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes, BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
Again, Correct Some Figments Of Science Imagination
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
 
1. Dark energy and matter YOK. Per  E=Total[m(1 + D)]  all the energy and matter of the universe are accounted for.
Adopt space-massdistance concept, mass-to-energy reconversion. 
 
2. Higgs Particle YOK. Mass forms below some value of the above D.
 
3. Galactic clusters formed by conglomeration?
Galactic clusters formed by Big-Bang's dispersion, evidenced by their Newtonian behaviour including expansion acceleration.
 
4. The universe expansion is fueled by the mass-to-enrgy reconversion. Eventually, as expansion will slow down, will run out of massfuel, gravity will overcome expansion and initiate empansion back to singularity. The universe is a cyclic array of energy-mass dualism, between all-energy and all-mass poles, under omnipresent gravity.
 
5. Natural Selection is a trait of organisms, life?
No. Natural selection is ubiquitous for ALL mass formats, all spin arrays. It derives from the expansion of the universe. All mass formats, regardless of size and type, from black holes to smallest particles, strive to increase their constrained energy in attempt to postpone their own reconversion to energy, to the energy that fuels cosmic expansion.
 
6. Life is an enigma?
Life is just another type of mass array, a self-replicating mass array. Earth life is a replicating RNAs mass. It has always been and still is an RNA world. ALL Earth's organisms are evolved RNAs, evolved for maintaining-enhancing Earth's biosphere, for prolonging RNAs survival.
 
7. Cells are Earth-life's primal organisms?
NO. Earth's life day one was the day on which RNA began replicating. RNAs, genes, are ORGANISMS. And so are their evolved templates, (RNA and DNA) genomes, ORGANISMS, as evidenced by life's chirality and by life's sleep.
 
8. Circadian Schmircadian sleep origin?
Sleep is inherent for life via the RNAs, the primal Earth ORGANISMS originated and originally active only under direct sunlight, in their pre-metabolism genesis era.
 
9. Epigenetics are heritable gene functions changes not involving changes in DNA sequence?
The "heritable or enduring changes" are epiDNAtics, not epigenetics. Alternative splicing is not epigenetics, even if/when not involving alteration of the DNA sequence. Earth life is an RNA world.
 
10.Genetics drive biology and culture modifications?
NO. It is culture that modifies genetics, not genetics that modifies culture. Culture modifies genetics simply via the evolutionary natural selection process of the RNA ORGANISMS. Likewise many natural genetic changes are due to aging and/or circumstantial effects on the genes and/or genomes ORGANISMS, similar to aging and/or evolutionary processes in monocell communities or in multicelled organisms.
 
 
SCIENCE SHOULD UNFREEZE. SCIENCE SHOULD ADJUST ITS VISION, COMPREHENSION AND CONCEPTS.
 
 
Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
 
Seed of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
http://www.the-scientist.com/c...
Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion
http://darwiniana.com/2010/09/...
Rethink Evolution/Natural Selection
http://darwiniana.com/2011/03/...
 
==========================
 
B.
 
Quantum Mechanics Of Life
Life's Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
 
From "Essence Of Quantum Mechanics"
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
The universe, and life within it, are not just conglomerations of mechanisms. The universe, and life within it, have come into being by the nature of energy-mass dualism, and their fate, their final outcome, is governed by this dualism. The genesis and, most probable cyclic, existence of the universe are governed by the energy-mass relationship.
 
Energy-mass relationship governs also the routes, the mechanisms, of cosmic and life evolutions.
 
Mechanisms do not set/determine the classical physics fate states. Mechanisms are routes of evolution between classical physics fate states. Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, probable, possible and actual mechanisms of getting from one to other classical physics states WITHIN the expanse from cosmic singularity to the maximum expanded universe and back to singularity states.
 
The universe is the archetype of quantum within classical physics. This is the fractal oneness of the universe. Astronomically there are two physics. A classical Newtonian physics behaviour of and between galactic clusters, and a quantum physics behaviour WITHIN the galactic clusters.
 
Life's Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology.
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS. Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes.
BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
The origin-reason and the purpose-fate of life are mechanistic, ethically and practically valueless. Life is the cheapest commodity on Earth. Human life is just one of many nature's routes for the natural survival of RNAs, the base Earth organism.
 
It is up to humans themselves to elect the purpose and format of their life as individuals and as group-members.
 
 
Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
Inception And Prevalence Of Western Monotheism
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
http://darwiniana.com/2011/04/...
=============================
 
C.
 
Adaptation And Genetics
Identify USA Science Problems
Enough Is Enough!
 
 
Concluding phrase of "A New Evolutionary History of Primates"
http://www.sciencedaily.com/re...
 
"genetic underpinnings of human adaptation"
 
This phrase displays basic ignorance of the relationship between genetics and physiology/system adaptation.
It should be replaced with "adaptation underpinnings of human genetics".
 
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS.
Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Genes/Genomes, BOTH ARE ORGANISMS.
 
IT IS ADAPTATION (CULTURE) THAT INDUCES GENES' EXPRESSION MODIFICATION, NOT GENETICS THAT INDUCES ADAPTATION. Modified genetic expression proceeds to energetically favor/enable adaptation.
 
 
Dov Henis
(comments from 22nd century)
Hope For Science?
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJ...
 
PS: How have the USA government and nation/public come to allow a plainly obvious ("scientists", whatever it means) trade-union, AAAS, to be involved in a host of national policies and budgets matters? The motives/interests of the AAAS, just another trade-union, are NOT always/necessarily congruent with the nation's/public welfare and it definitely hinders very effectively advancement of basic science...DH

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