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Virus Jumps Between Primates

In the first known case of a cross-species outbreak of an adenovirus, researchers identify a virus that infected both monkeys and humans.

By | July 18, 2011

Titi MonkeyWIKIMEDIA COMMONS, JEFF KUBINA

The same virus that caused the death of 19 monkeys two years ago also infected humans, according to a new report in PLoS Pathogens. In May 2009, 23 titi monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center in Davis became sick with an adenovirus, a large DNA virus that commonly causes respiratory infections in humans and various illnesses in other animals, but was not known to jump between species, ScienceNOW reports.

"It's always been thought that adenoviruses are not likely to be causes of outbreaks or pandemics because they have never been known to cross between animals and humans," lead author Charles Chiu, director of the UCSF–Abbott Viral Diagnostics and Discovery Center at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), told Nature.

But while searching for the source of the outbreak, a research team from the University of California, San Francisco, found that a lab worker and one of her family members, who never came in contact with the monkeys, had both become sick with the virus—demonstrating that the virus can also infect humans. It is the first time an adenovirus has been documented to cross between animals and humans, though scientists still do not know if the original host of the virus was humans, monkeys, or another organism.

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Avatar of: Ian Colquhoun

Anonymous

July 18, 2011

This is an interesting development in zoonoses.  The image that accompanies the report, however, is not of a titi monkey (the speciose New World monkey genus Callicebus in the family Pitheciidae); rather, you have provided a picture of a Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldi, a member of the New World primate subfamily Callitrichinae).  While the genera names Callicebus and Callimico appear similar, the two taxonomic groups are not very closely related; it is thought they last shared a common ancestor approximately 26.0 million years ago (Opazo et al. 2006. Mol.Phylogenet.Evol. 40: 274-280).  On the Taxonomy Fail Index (TFI: http://myrmecos.net/2010/09/09... ), which is calculated as T/H, where T = time (in millions of years) since species A and B shared a common ancestor, and H = time (in millions of years) since human and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor (i.e., approx. 6 million years ago), confusing Callimico with Callicebus produces a score of 26/6 = 4.33.

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

July 18, 2011

This is an interesting development in zoonoses.  The image that accompanies the report, however, is not of a titi monkey (the speciose New World monkey genus Callicebus in the family Pitheciidae); rather, you have provided a picture of a Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldi, a member of the New World primate subfamily Callitrichinae).  While the genera names Callicebus and Callimico appear similar, the two taxonomic groups are not very closely related; it is thought they last shared a common ancestor approximately 26.0 million years ago (Opazo et al. 2006. Mol.Phylogenet.Evol. 40: 274-280).  On the Taxonomy Fail Index (TFI: http://myrmecos.net/2010/09/09... ), which is calculated as T/H, where T = time (in millions of years) since species A and B shared a common ancestor, and H = time (in millions of years) since human and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor (i.e., approx. 6 million years ago), confusing Callimico with Callicebus produces a score of 26/6 = 4.33.

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

July 18, 2011

This is an interesting development in zoonoses.  The image that accompanies the report, however, is not of a titi monkey (the speciose New World monkey genus Callicebus in the family Pitheciidae); rather, you have provided a picture of a Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldi, a member of the New World primate subfamily Callitrichinae).  While the genera names Callicebus and Callimico appear similar, the two taxonomic groups are not very closely related; it is thought they last shared a common ancestor approximately 26.0 million years ago (Opazo et al. 2006. Mol.Phylogenet.Evol. 40: 274-280).  On the Taxonomy Fail Index (TFI: http://myrmecos.net/2010/09/09... ), which is calculated as T/H, where T = time (in millions of years) since species A and B shared a common ancestor, and H = time (in millions of years) since human and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor (i.e., approx. 6 million years ago), confusing Callimico with Callicebus produces a score of 26/6 = 4.33.

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

July 28, 2011

Interesting story, with implications for research on zoonoses; this finding also opens the possibility that adenoviruses could be an additional source of horizontal gene transfer between species. But, marring the report is the fact that a story dealing with titi monkeys (genus Callicebus, subfamily Callicebinae, family Pitheciidae) uses a photo of a Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldii, subfamily Callitrichinae, family Cebidae) that is mis-labelled as a titi monkey (see http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fa... , vs. http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fa.... If the source cited for the photo (i.e., Wikimedia Commons, Jeff Kubina) also had the photo mis-labelled, this adenovirus story succeeds in propogating an inaccuracy. 
Despite the apparent similarity in the genera names Callicebus and Callimico, and despite the fact that both are New World monkeys (infraorder Platyrrhini, Order Primates), titi monkeys and Goeldi's marmoset do not have a particularly close phylogenetic relationship -- recent research indicates that these two New World monkey genera last shared a common ancestor approximately 26 million years ago, during the late Oligocene (see Opazo et al., 2006. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 274-280).
On the Taxonomy Fail Index (see: http://myrmecos.net/2010/09/09..., or TFI, where TFI = T/H, and T = the number of million years since A and B shared a common ancestor (with A being the actual taxon of the pictured organism and B being the taxon as misidentified), H = the number of million years since humans and our closest relatives, the chimps, shared a common ancestor; i.e., ~ 6 million years), confusing Callicebus with Callimico results in a TFI = 26/6 = 4.3 ; in other words, this is a case of taxonomic confusion over four times worse than mistaking a chimpanzee for a human!

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

July 28, 2011

Interesting story, with implications for research on zoonoses; this finding also opens the possibility that adenoviruses could be an additional source of horizontal gene transfer between species. But, marring the report is the fact that a story dealing with titi monkeys (genus Callicebus, subfamily Callicebinae, family Pitheciidae) uses a photo of a Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldii, subfamily Callitrichinae, family Cebidae) that is mis-labelled as a titi monkey (see http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fa... , vs. http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fa.... If the source cited for the photo (i.e., Wikimedia Commons, Jeff Kubina) also had the photo mis-labelled, this adenovirus story succeeds in propogating an inaccuracy. 
Despite the apparent similarity in the genera names Callicebus and Callimico, and despite the fact that both are New World monkeys (infraorder Platyrrhini, Order Primates), titi monkeys and Goeldi's marmoset do not have a particularly close phylogenetic relationship -- recent research indicates that these two New World monkey genera last shared a common ancestor approximately 26 million years ago, during the late Oligocene (see Opazo et al., 2006. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 274-280).
On the Taxonomy Fail Index (see: http://myrmecos.net/2010/09/09..., or TFI, where TFI = T/H, and T = the number of million years since A and B shared a common ancestor (with A being the actual taxon of the pictured organism and B being the taxon as misidentified), H = the number of million years since humans and our closest relatives, the chimps, shared a common ancestor; i.e., ~ 6 million years), confusing Callicebus with Callimico results in a TFI = 26/6 = 4.3 ; in other words, this is a case of taxonomic confusion over four times worse than mistaking a chimpanzee for a human!

Avatar of: Ian Colquhoun

Anonymous

July 28, 2011

Interesting story, with implications for research on zoonoses; this finding also opens the possibility that adenoviruses could be an additional source of horizontal gene transfer between species. But, marring the report is the fact that a story dealing with titi monkeys (genus Callicebus, subfamily Callicebinae, family Pitheciidae) uses a photo of a Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldii, subfamily Callitrichinae, family Cebidae) that is mis-labelled as a titi monkey (see http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fa... , vs. http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/fa.... If the source cited for the photo (i.e., Wikimedia Commons, Jeff Kubina) also had the photo mis-labelled, this adenovirus story succeeds in propogating an inaccuracy. 
Despite the apparent similarity in the genera names Callicebus and Callimico, and despite the fact that both are New World monkeys (infraorder Platyrrhini, Order Primates), titi monkeys and Goeldi's marmoset do not have a particularly close phylogenetic relationship -- recent research indicates that these two New World monkey genera last shared a common ancestor approximately 26 million years ago, during the late Oligocene (see Opazo et al., 2006. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 274-280).
On the Taxonomy Fail Index (see: http://myrmecos.net/2010/09/09..., or TFI, where TFI = T/H, and T = the number of million years since A and B shared a common ancestor (with A being the actual taxon of the pictured organism and B being the taxon as misidentified), H = the number of million years since humans and our closest relatives, the chimps, shared a common ancestor; i.e., ~ 6 million years), confusing Callicebus with Callimico results in a TFI = 26/6 = 4.3 ; in other words, this is a case of taxonomic confusion over four times worse than mistaking a chimpanzee for a human!

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