Advertisement
AAAS
AAAS

Cigarette Smoking Leads to Coke?

Nicotine may alter the brain’s response to cocaine, supporting the idea that the legal drug may serve as a "gateway" to the use of illegal substances.

By | November 4, 2011

WIKIMEDIA COMMONS, HENDRIKE

Cigarette smokers may be more inclined to crave cocaine, according to a study published this week (November 2) in Science Translational Medicine, which found that the nicotine can result in gene regulation changes that boost the response of mouse brains to the drug.

Scientists have long recognized the trend that drug users tend to start with cigarettes and alcohol before moving on to harder drugs, thus tagging the legal substances with the label "gateway drugs." But there was no mechanism to explain the trend, and the idea has been a continued source of controversy.

In the current study, epidemiologist Denise Kandel at Columbia University, New York, who originally reported on the "gateway drug" idea in 1975, and her husband Eric, a Nobel Prize-winning neurobiologist who spoke with The Scientist just last month about his research, teamed up with other colleagues to see if there was a molecular basis for the theory. The researchers found that mice first treated with nicotine showed enhanced addiction-related behaviors in response to cocaine—specifically, they were 78 percent more likely to go to locations where they had received cocaine previously and 98 percent more active overall. "We found that nicotine works on the DNA-packaging system, known as chromatin," lead author Amir Levine of Columbia told Nature, resulting in the increased expression of drug-addiction-related gene called FosB.

The researchers also analyzed epidemiological data of 1,160 high school students and found that most cocaine users begin using coke after they start smoking, and that smoking increased the risk of addiction to the drug.

"This paper is exciting because it is one of the first well-defined characterizations of gene priming by a drug," neurobiologist Alfred Robison of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York told Nature.

Advertisement
The Scientist
The Scientist

Add a Comment

Avatar of: You

You

Processing...
Processing...

Sign In with your LabX Media Group Passport to leave a comment

Not a member? Register Now!

LabX Media Group Passport Logo

Comments

Avatar of: E Elaine Connelly

E Elaine Connelly

Posts: 1457

November 4, 2011

What a load of Balderdash!

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

November 4, 2011

What a load of Balderdash!

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

November 4, 2011

What a load of Balderdash!

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

November 18, 2011

(Culture modifies genetics, not vice versa...and not
medication…)

Pavlov’s Smile: RNAs Are Earth’s Primal Organisms

Culture>genes>addiction (2 July
2009)

http://universe-life.com/2011/...

Ameisen Olivier, Imagination Medicine,
Placebo, Addictions, God-Religion, Virtual Reality
http://www.science20.com/news_...
(recapitulation of earlier posts re genes’ lifehood)

A. Anti-Depressants, like
Ameisen Olivier’s “end of my addictionâ€쳌
http://www.completehealthdalla...
http://www.answers.com/topic/s...

B. Imagination Medicine
http://www.sciencenews.org/vie...

Brain imaging reveals the substance of placebos.
Expectation alone triggers the same neural circuits and chemicals as real
drugs.

“It all boils down to expectation. If you expect pain to
diminish, the brain releases natural painkillers. If you expect pain to get
worse, the brain shuts off the processes that provide pain relief. Somehow,
anticipation trips the same neural wires as actual treatment does.

Scientists are using imaging techniques to probe brains
on placebos and watch the placebo effect in real time. Such studies show, for
example, that the pleasure chemical dopamine and the brain’s natural
painkillers, opioids, work oppositely depending on whether people expect pain
to get better or worse. Other research shows that placebos can reduce anxiety.â€쳌

C. Placebos: some background info
http://www.cerebromente.org.br...
http://www.cerebromente.org.br...
http://thjuland.tripod.com/pla...

The concept of a placebo comes from medieval times, when
professional mourners were paid to stay by the bedside of. deceased person,
reciting a psalm beginning “Placebo Domino…â€쳌 or “I shall please the Lord.â€쳌
“Placeboâ€쳌 gradually became the word used for the paid mourner, whose grief was,
in fact, false.

D. From “Life’s Manifestâ€쳌

Genes are the primal, 1st stratum, Earth’s organism and
genomes are 2nd stratum organisms, multigenes consisting of cooperative
communes of their member genes.
Life is a real virtual affair that pops in and out of existence in its matrix,
which is the energy constrained in Earth’s biosphere.

E. From “On Science and Religionâ€쳌
“Evolutionary Biology Of Culture And Religionâ€쳌

The concept “Godâ€쳌 is a human virtual reality artifact,
experienced only through sensory stimuli. Preoccupation with god-religious
matters within a scientific frameworks contributes to corrosion and corruption
of science and scientism by manifesting or implying acceptance of virtual
reality as reality.

Everything is discussable scientifically. No limit.
Including virtual matters and affairs. But for a scientific discussion the
framework must be clearly defined. The totality of subjects that come under the
classification “virtualâ€쳌 are not an exception. You can include in the
discussion Pavlov and the modes and manners of exploiting virtuality in any
area and towards any end.

F. So why Pavlov smiled in 2008?

Pavlov demonstrated effecting placebo phenomena in
multicelled organisms by manipulation of their drives-reactions. Now placebo
and imagination phenomena are demonstrated also in the smallest, base
organisms, in the genes and genomes of multi-celled organisms, in our primal
first stratum and 2nd stratum base organisms.

A very good reason to smile.

Now an interesting chain is exposed to our view, the
Genes-Virtual Reality Chain, a most intriguing cultural evolution chain
extending from the genesis of our genes to nowadays, throughout life, a virtual
reality existence, and by virtual reality phenomena, exploitations and
manipulations.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

http://universe-life.com

Life Genesis From Aromaticity/H-Bonding

http://universe-life.com/2011/...

 

Avatar of:

Posts: 0

November 18, 2011

(Culture modifies genetics, not vice versa...and not
medication…)

Pavlov’s Smile: RNAs Are Earth’s Primal Organisms

Culture>genes>addiction (2 July
2009)

http://universe-life.com/2011/...

Ameisen Olivier, Imagination Medicine,
Placebo, Addictions, God-Religion, Virtual Reality
http://www.science20.com/news_...
(recapitulation of earlier posts re genes’ lifehood)

A. Anti-Depressants, like
Ameisen Olivier’s “end of my addictionâ€쳌
http://www.completehealthdalla...
http://www.answers.com/topic/s...

B. Imagination Medicine
http://www.sciencenews.org/vie...

Brain imaging reveals the substance of placebos.
Expectation alone triggers the same neural circuits and chemicals as real
drugs.

“It all boils down to expectation. If you expect pain to
diminish, the brain releases natural painkillers. If you expect pain to get
worse, the brain shuts off the processes that provide pain relief. Somehow,
anticipation trips the same neural wires as actual treatment does.

Scientists are using imaging techniques to probe brains
on placebos and watch the placebo effect in real time. Such studies show, for
example, that the pleasure chemical dopamine and the brain’s natural
painkillers, opioids, work oppositely depending on whether people expect pain
to get better or worse. Other research shows that placebos can reduce anxiety.â€쳌

C. Placebos: some background info
http://www.cerebromente.org.br...
http://www.cerebromente.org.br...
http://thjuland.tripod.com/pla...

The concept of a placebo comes from medieval times, when
professional mourners were paid to stay by the bedside of. deceased person,
reciting a psalm beginning “Placebo Domino…â€쳌 or “I shall please the Lord.â€쳌
“Placeboâ€쳌 gradually became the word used for the paid mourner, whose grief was,
in fact, false.

D. From “Life’s Manifestâ€쳌

Genes are the primal, 1st stratum, Earth’s organism and
genomes are 2nd stratum organisms, multigenes consisting of cooperative
communes of their member genes.
Life is a real virtual affair that pops in and out of existence in its matrix,
which is the energy constrained in Earth’s biosphere.

E. From “On Science and Religionâ€쳌
“Evolutionary Biology Of Culture And Religionâ€쳌

The concept “Godâ€쳌 is a human virtual reality artifact,
experienced only through sensory stimuli. Preoccupation with god-religious
matters within a scientific frameworks contributes to corrosion and corruption
of science and scientism by manifesting or implying acceptance of virtual
reality as reality.

Everything is discussable scientifically. No limit.
Including virtual matters and affairs. But for a scientific discussion the
framework must be clearly defined. The totality of subjects that come under the
classification “virtualâ€쳌 are not an exception. You can include in the
discussion Pavlov and the modes and manners of exploiting virtuality in any
area and towards any end.

F. So why Pavlov smiled in 2008?

Pavlov demonstrated effecting placebo phenomena in
multicelled organisms by manipulation of their drives-reactions. Now placebo
and imagination phenomena are demonstrated also in the smallest, base
organisms, in the genes and genomes of multi-celled organisms, in our primal
first stratum and 2nd stratum base organisms.

A very good reason to smile.

Now an interesting chain is exposed to our view, the
Genes-Virtual Reality Chain, a most intriguing cultural evolution chain
extending from the genesis of our genes to nowadays, throughout life, a virtual
reality existence, and by virtual reality phenomena, exploitations and
manipulations.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

http://universe-life.com

Life Genesis From Aromaticity/H-Bonding

http://universe-life.com/2011/...

 

Avatar of: Dov

Dov

Posts: 1457

November 18, 2011

(Culture modifies genetics, not vice versa...and not
medication…)

Pavlov’s Smile: RNAs Are Earth’s Primal Organisms

Culture>genes>addiction (2 July
2009)

http://universe-life.com/2011/...

Ameisen Olivier, Imagination Medicine,
Placebo, Addictions, God-Religion, Virtual Reality
http://www.science20.com/news_...
(recapitulation of earlier posts re genes’ lifehood)

A. Anti-Depressants, like
Ameisen Olivier’s “end of my addictionâ€쳌
http://www.completehealthdalla...
http://www.answers.com/topic/s...

B. Imagination Medicine
http://www.sciencenews.org/vie...

Brain imaging reveals the substance of placebos.
Expectation alone triggers the same neural circuits and chemicals as real
drugs.

“It all boils down to expectation. If you expect pain to
diminish, the brain releases natural painkillers. If you expect pain to get
worse, the brain shuts off the processes that provide pain relief. Somehow,
anticipation trips the same neural wires as actual treatment does.

Scientists are using imaging techniques to probe brains
on placebos and watch the placebo effect in real time. Such studies show, for
example, that the pleasure chemical dopamine and the brain’s natural
painkillers, opioids, work oppositely depending on whether people expect pain
to get better or worse. Other research shows that placebos can reduce anxiety.â€쳌

C. Placebos: some background info
http://www.cerebromente.org.br...
http://www.cerebromente.org.br...
http://thjuland.tripod.com/pla...

The concept of a placebo comes from medieval times, when
professional mourners were paid to stay by the bedside of. deceased person,
reciting a psalm beginning “Placebo Domino…â€쳌 or “I shall please the Lord.â€쳌
“Placeboâ€쳌 gradually became the word used for the paid mourner, whose grief was,
in fact, false.

D. From “Life’s Manifestâ€쳌

Genes are the primal, 1st stratum, Earth’s organism and
genomes are 2nd stratum organisms, multigenes consisting of cooperative
communes of their member genes.
Life is a real virtual affair that pops in and out of existence in its matrix,
which is the energy constrained in Earth’s biosphere.

E. From “On Science and Religionâ€쳌
“Evolutionary Biology Of Culture And Religionâ€쳌

The concept “Godâ€쳌 is a human virtual reality artifact,
experienced only through sensory stimuli. Preoccupation with god-religious
matters within a scientific frameworks contributes to corrosion and corruption
of science and scientism by manifesting or implying acceptance of virtual
reality as reality.

Everything is discussable scientifically. No limit.
Including virtual matters and affairs. But for a scientific discussion the
framework must be clearly defined. The totality of subjects that come under the
classification “virtualâ€쳌 are not an exception. You can include in the
discussion Pavlov and the modes and manners of exploiting virtuality in any
area and towards any end.

F. So why Pavlov smiled in 2008?

Pavlov demonstrated effecting placebo phenomena in
multicelled organisms by manipulation of their drives-reactions. Now placebo
and imagination phenomena are demonstrated also in the smallest, base
organisms, in the genes and genomes of multi-celled organisms, in our primal
first stratum and 2nd stratum base organisms.

A very good reason to smile.

Now an interesting chain is exposed to our view, the
Genes-Virtual Reality Chain, a most intriguing cultural evolution chain
extending from the genesis of our genes to nowadays, throughout life, a virtual
reality existence, and by virtual reality phenomena, exploitations and
manipulations.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

http://universe-life.com

Life Genesis From Aromaticity/H-Bonding

http://universe-life.com/2011/...

 

Follow The Scientist

icon-facebook icon-linkedin icon-twitter icon-vimeo icon-youtube
Advertisement

Stay Connected with The Scientist

  • icon-facebook The Scientist Magazine
  • icon-facebook The Scientist Careers
  • icon-facebook Neuroscience Research Techniques
  • icon-facebook Genetic Research Techniques
  • icon-facebook Cell Culture Techniques
  • icon-facebook Microbiology and Immunology
  • icon-facebook Cancer Research and Technology
  • icon-facebook Stem Cell and Regenerative Science
Advertisement
Advertisement
The Scientist
The Scientist
Life Technologies