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Surviving Acidity

A new study reveals clues to the naked mole-rat’s ability to thrive in underground environments with high levels of carbon dioxide.

By | September 25, 2012

image: Surviving Acidity A young naked mole-rat in a tunnelWikimedia, Ltshears

Naked mole-rats live together in tight, enclosed burrows in African soil, where poor ventilation results in a buildup of carbon dioxide, making the environment extremely acidic. Such conditions would be intolerable to most mammals. But according to a study was published online this week on PLOS ONE, not only do mole-rats survive in such conditions, they seem entirely unaffected, staying in acidic conditions much longer than rats, mice, or a closely related mole-rat species that is not normally exposed to such acidity.

When placed in a system of cages with areas of acidic air and areas of clean air, most rodents actively avoided the acidic fumes. This response is regulated by a collection of nerves in the brainstem called the trigeminal nucleus, which is activated by specialized nerve fibers in the mole-rat’s nose and results in mucus secretion, rubbing of the nose—suggesting that the animals are in pain—and withdrawal from the area. The naked mole-rats showed no activity in the trigeminal nucleus when exposed to acidic air, however, and spent as much time in the acidic areas as they did areas with clean air.

Studying such acidity-resistant animals as the mole-rat could provide clues about pain tolerance and relief in other animals, including people, Thomas Park, professor of biological sciences at UIC and principal investigator of the study, said in a press release. “Studying an animal that feels no pain from an acidified environment should lead to new ways of alleviating pain in humans.”

And pain relief isn’t the only thing scientists hope to learn from the small African rodents. In the recent feature story, “Underground Supermodels,” Park describes the animals’ ability to withstand oxygen deprivation without brain damage, with possible implications for heart attack and stroke victims; their apparent resistance to all types of cancer; and their incredibly long lives, longer than any other rodent, throughout which they seem to stay as healthy as a young pup.

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Comments

Avatar of: Atiyah

Atiyah

Posts: 5

October 7, 2012

This is amazing as I have never heard of this species before. Does it survive in clean air as it does in acidic areas?

Avatar of: Gune

Gune

Posts: 4

October 11, 2012

Tolerance is a phenomenon that enables the mole rat to survive in such harsh conditions. The tigeminal nuclei connection if severed in humans will lead to lack of adptability in both normal and harsh environmental conditions. Overexpression of stress tolerant genes in the same nuclei should enable both the mole rat and normal rat models to withstand and endure acidic environments. This should pave the way for effective migraine research in humans as we know this disease plays havoc in western countries.

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