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Playing for Words

Children with dyslexia have an easier time learning to read after playing action video games that don’t incorporate reading.

By | February 28, 2013

FLICKR, ANGRYJULIEMONDAY

Shooting silly-looking rabbits with a plunger gun in a video game called Rayman Raving Rabbids can improve the reading ability of dyslexic children, according to a new study publishing in the March 18 issue of Current Biology—despite the fact that the game contained no reading or linguistic components. The counterintuitive finding supports the idea that dyslexia is not only a disorder of linguistic centers of the brain, but may also involve areas that govern attention and motor skills.

“The claim that they help dyslexic kids read is very novel and quite counter to recent research on dyslexia—which is held to be a phonological disorder that makes kids have a hard time hearing the transitions between sounds in speech,” James Gee, a psycholinguist at Arizona State University and author of several books on video games and learning, said in an email.

Despite having comparable IQs to other kids and adequate instruction, “reading is very difficult for [dyslexic children],” said the study’s co-first author Simone Gori from the University of Padua in Italy. Children with the disorder often undergo interventions that focus on the linguistic elements such as sounding out common phonemes, or speech sounds. However, said Gori, there is not a lot of scientific evidence to show that these interventions work.

Furthermore, recent research suggests that dyslexia may affect areas of the brain involved in motor coordination and attention. In order to read a word, a person’s attention focuses—“like a filter or a spotlight,” said Gori—allowing the reader to ignore or inhibit the information surrounding a single word. When a reader focuses on the first letter of a word, the “spotlight” highlights the letters just beyond it, allowing the word as a whole to register. It is this component of reading that Gori thinks dyslexic children have trouble with.

There are well-accepted studies showing that an action video game “is far better for training people’s ability to focus attention accurately and stably . . . than passive observation,” John Stein, an emeritus professor at Oxford University who specialized in neurology and dyslexia, said in an email. To see if attention training, apart from other linguistic exercises, could improve reading in children with dyslexia, the researchers selected 20 children who had been diagnosed with the disorder but were not video-game players. The 10-year olds came in to the clinic and played either action or action-free segments of the Rayman Raving Rabbids video game for about 12 hours over the course of 2 weeks. At the end of the study, kids in the action-video-game group showed improved reading speed and accuracy, whereas the group playing the non-action video games did not. The level of improvement, said Gori, was “better than 1 year of schooling,” and was still apparent after 2 months without game play.  

“We spend a lot of money to upgrade our internet speed. That’s because the speed of processing is really critical,” said Paula Tallal, who studies language processing at Rutgers University and wasn’t involved in the study. And that’s “what’s probably really happening,” with the children.

Gori agrees. In a sense, “doing this action video game lets you move this spotlight faster and more accurately,” he speculates.

“That action video games train attention in ways that are directly transferable to such seemingly disparate tasks such as letter recognition is remarkable—and certainly goes against common public discourse that frequently positions games in competition with reading,” wrote Constance Steinkuehler, a video-game researcher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in an email. However, Arizona State University’s Gee cautions that the sample size was quite small for this study. Gori agrees that more research is needed and hopes to be able replicate these findings on a larger scale.

(Read more about how games are used in science, education, and medicine in our January 2013 issue.)

S. Franceschini et al., “Action video games make dyslexic children read better,” Current Biology, doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.01.044, 2013.

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Comments

Avatar of: Masa Blaznik

Masa Blaznik

Posts: 1

March 3, 2013

There is a radical new understanding of dyslexia based on REI theory and a new method that helps to completely eliminate it. This proves that it is not a life long disability!

REI theory on dyslexia and a method are avaliable on this link: http://www.psi-book.com/dyslexia. As psyhologist I have been working with it for the past 1,5 years and results are amazing!

According to REI theory when dyslexic reads he doesn’t compose words from individual letters, but takes in whole words or larger parts of the words (usually their roots) as individual symbols and connects them with the pictures in his memory. Here is where the problem occurs because this demands that he remembers several thousand very similar pictures instead of merely twenty-six images of letters that represent sounds and make it possible to compose words.

From this perspective it can be seen why video games would »help« a dyslexic child. They would get them more skilled at picture processing and retrieving, but not reading.

REI theory offers a revolutionary solution that helps dyslexic children learn how to read properly: by introducing double symbols for the time working with the method. You can read in more details on the link above.

Avatar of: susanh

susanh

Posts: 1

March 16, 2013

With competing definitions of dyslexia, it may be appropriate to start to more clearly categorize the types of dyslexia.  Some definitions revolve around the auditory skills required for reading and some, as in this article, revolve around visual attention.

Children with the disorder often undergo interventions that focus on the linguistic elements such as sounding out common phonemes, or speech sounds. However, said Gori, there is not a lot of scientific evidence to show that these interventions work.

There IS evidence that remediating the phonemic awareness of some dyslexic students before phonologic decoding instruction not only changes the students' brain but helps them learn to read ("Dyslexia" by Sally Shaywitz, neuropsychologist.)  This is the kind of dyslexia that my son had.  With intensive instruction he eventually learned to read at and then above grade level, and his spelling is approaching grade level.

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