5-Prime | Diming Out Dimerization
What is dimerization? It is a process where two molecules of similar chemical composition come together to form a single polymer known as a dimer.
Where does dimerization occur? It happens throughout the cell. For example, dimers form in the cell membrane, where tyrosine-kinase receptors reside, and in the cytosol that contains microtubules composed of tubulin. In the nucleus, hormone receptors, acting as transcription factors, form dimers to increase stability and improve binding to DNA.
Do different types of dimers exist? Yes. Homodimers are comprised of like molecules. For example, in the tyrosine-kinase receptor, signal molecules outside the cell bind to monomers on the cell membrane, coming together to form the receptor's two identical halves. Relay proteins inside the cell can bind only to the dimerized receptor.
Heterodimers are comprised of similar molecules. Tubulin, the protein building block of microtubules, is composed of the polypeptide...