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The flow of calcium and potassium ions keeps muscles contracting in the diaphragms of neonatal mice, but if a key protein receptor is missing, fatigue sets in more quickly.

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Mice treated with an immunostimulant had better outcomes when researchers blocked the expression of TNFR2, a compound that helps tumors evade immune attack.

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In the presence of cytosolic DNA, cancer cells activate antiviral pathways that disguise them as immune cells.

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In response to short DNA fragments, lymphocytes release mitochondrial DNA that helps trigger an immune response.

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image: Plant Cell Walls Can Control Growth in the Dark

Plant Cell Walls Can Control Growth in the Dark

By Kerry Grens | February 1, 2018

To maintain an energy-saving growth strategy in the absence of light, seedlings need signals generated by pectin in their cell walls.

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image: Distinct Regions Drive Responses to Anxiety, Fear

Distinct Regions Drive Responses to Anxiety, Fear

By Catherine Offord | January 1, 2018

Researchers map brain activity associated with a person’s anticipation of or direct confrontation with danger.

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A single receptor on natural killer cells recognizes an amino acid sequence conserved across Zika, dengue, and related pathogens.

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image: Microglia Turnover in the Human Brain

Microglia Turnover in the Human Brain

By Shawna Williams | October 1, 2017

Researchers find that about a quarter of the immune cells are replaced every year.

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image: How Immune Receptors Got into Mouse Noses

How Immune Receptors Got into Mouse Noses

By Shawna Williams | September 1, 2017

A study traces proteins’ evolution from the immune to the olfactory system.

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Using single-cell RNA sequencing, scientists characterize new populations of dendritic cells and monocytes.

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