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The flow of calcium and potassium ions keeps muscles contracting in the diaphragms of neonatal mice, but if a key protein receptor is missing, fatigue sets in more quickly.

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image: Distinct Regions Drive Responses to Anxiety, Fear

Distinct Regions Drive Responses to Anxiety, Fear

By Catherine Offord | January 1, 2018

Researchers map brain activity associated with a person’s anticipation of or direct confrontation with danger.

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image: Microglia Turnover in the Human Brain

Microglia Turnover in the Human Brain

By Shawna Williams | October 1, 2017

Researchers find that about a quarter of the immune cells are replaced every year.

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image: Long-Term Memory Storage Begins Immediately

Long-Term Memory Storage Begins Immediately

By Kerry Grens | June 1, 2017

In mice, cells in the prefrontal cortex—where memories are maintained long-term—start to encode a fearful experience right from the start.

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 Zebra finches reared by another species learn to sing their foster parents’ song with rhythms characteristic of their genetic background.

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Zebra finches dial down dopamine signaling when they hear errors in a song performance.

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image: Neural Network Found That Helps Control Breathing

Neural Network Found That Helps Control Breathing

By Catherine Offord | November 1, 2016

The results suggest that breathing is orchestrated by three—rather than two—excitatory circuits in the medulla.

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Results from experiments in mice revise a long-held hypothesis that certain protein scaffolds are needed for synaptic activity.

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image: Do Brighter Species’ Brains Emit Redder Light?

Do Brighter Species’ Brains Emit Redder Light?

By Alison F. Takemura | October 1, 2016

Photon emissions in the brain are red-shifted in more-intelligent species, though scientists dispute what that means.

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image: Fruit Flies Feel Humidity with Dedicated Receptors

Fruit Flies Feel Humidity with Dedicated Receptors

By Alison F. Takemura | September 1, 2016

Drosophila antennae let the insects seek out moisture levels they like best.

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