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image: Condensin Folds DNA Through Loop Extrusion

Condensin Folds DNA Through Loop Extrusion

By Diana Kwon | June 1, 2018

By observing the activity of a protein complex in real time, researchers have uncovered new evidence for a long-standing theory.

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The flow of calcium and potassium ions keeps muscles contracting in the diaphragms of neonatal mice, but if a key protein receptor is missing, fatigue sets in more quickly.

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Mice treated with an immunostimulant had better outcomes when researchers blocked the expression of TNFR2, a compound that helps tumors evade immune attack.

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In the presence of cytosolic DNA, cancer cells activate antiviral pathways that disguise them as immune cells.

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In response to short DNA fragments, lymphocytes release mitochondrial DNA that helps trigger an immune response.

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image: Distinct Regions Drive Responses to Anxiety, Fear

Distinct Regions Drive Responses to Anxiety, Fear

By Catherine Offord | January 1, 2018

Researchers map brain activity associated with a person’s anticipation of or direct confrontation with danger.

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A single receptor on natural killer cells recognizes an amino acid sequence conserved across Zika, dengue, and related pathogens.

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image: Microglia Turnover in the Human Brain

Microglia Turnover in the Human Brain

By Shawna Williams | October 1, 2017

Researchers find that about a quarter of the immune cells are replaced every year.

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Pauses may help cells fine-tune gene expression.

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image: How Immune Receptors Got into Mouse Noses

How Immune Receptors Got into Mouse Noses

By Shawna Williams | September 1, 2017

A study traces proteins’ evolution from the immune to the olfactory system.

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