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image: Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

By Michelle G. Rooks and Wendy S. Garrett | August 1, 2011

Gut bacteria that feed on healthy food appear to amplify the nutritional benefits of those foods. However, they also appear to amplify the undesirable effects of unhealthy food. 


image: Cell-In-Cell Action

Cell-In-Cell Action

By Jef Akst | August 1, 2011

The mechanism by which tumor cells end up harboring other living cells remains elusive, and the sparse evidence acquired thus far has led researchers to propose different hypotheses. 


image: OPSINS: Tools of the trade

OPSINS: Tools of the trade

By Edward S. Boyden | July 1, 2011

The optogenetic toolset is composed of genetically encoded molecules that, when targeted to specific neurons in the brain, enable the electrical activity of those neurons to be driven or silenced by light. 


image: Exosome Basics

Exosome Basics

By Clotilde Théry | July 1, 2011

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. Internal vesicles form by the inward budding of cellular compartments known as multivesicular endosomes (MVE). 


image: Smashing Crystals

Smashing Crystals

July 1, 2011

A powerful new X-ray–generating laser is imaging smaller crystals than ever before.


image: The Anatomy of a High

The Anatomy of a High

By Thomas Kosten | June 3, 2011

When someone snorts or smokes cocaine, which is composed of small crystalline alkaloid molecules, the drug enters the bloodstream and from there eventually crosses into the heart, brain, and other organs. 


image: Part Human, Part HIV

Part Human, Part HIV

By Gene M. Shearer and Adriano Boasso | June 3, 2011

Like other enveloped viruses, HIV exits its host cell enshrouded in the cell’s membrane, which contains membrane molecules such as the human leukocyte antigens (HLA). 


image: Fungus Factsheet

Fungus Factsheet

By Brad Spellberg | June 3, 2011

The Last Vaccine Frontier: Successful vaccines have been created to protect against pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Why aren’t there any for combating fungal infections?   


image: Antifungal Immune Response

Antifungal Immune Response

By Brad Spellberg | June 3, 2011

For years researchers believed that any effective antifungal vaccine would have to induce the production of antibodies.  Research studies have now shown that the cellular immune responses mediated by Th1 and Th17 cytokines are just as important. 


image: Growth Plate Dynamics

Growth Plate Dynamics

By Lewis Wolpert | June 3, 2011

The growth plate is divided into several distinct regions, each populated with cartilage cells (chondrocytes) displaying characteristic behaviors. 


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