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image: The Seat of Memory

The Seat of Memory

By Carol Barnes | September 1, 2011

Early on, researchers had learned that the hippocampus was the structure in the brain where long-term memories were created and stored, but it was not known whether the different cell types within this structure might be more or less susceptible to the aging process.


image: The Cytokine Cycle

The Cytokine Cycle

By W. Sue T. Griffin | September 1, 2011

The initiating cause of Alzheimer’s disease is still unknown. However, from our studies it’s clear that many types of neuronal damage—­­from traumatic brain injury, to epilepsy, infection, or genetic predisposition—­can activate brain immune cells—microglia and astrocytes-- promoting them to produce IL-1 and S100 inflammatory cytokines.


image: Helpful Bacterial Metabolites

Helpful Bacterial Metabolites

By Michelle G. Rooks and Wendy S. Garrett | August 1, 2011

While gut microbiota appear to have both positive and negative impacts on our  health, in the guts of healthy, lean individuals, the good outweighs the bad.  


image: Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

By Michelle G. Rooks and Wendy S. Garrett | August 1, 2011

Gut bacteria that feed on healthy food appear to amplify the nutritional benefits of those foods. However, they also appear to amplify the undesirable effects of unhealthy food. 


image: The Anatomy of a High

The Anatomy of a High

By Thomas Kosten | June 3, 2011

When someone snorts or smokes cocaine, which is composed of small crystalline alkaloid molecules, the drug enters the bloodstream and from there eventually crosses into the heart, brain, and other organs. 


image: Part Human, Part HIV

Part Human, Part HIV

By Gene M. Shearer and Adriano Boasso | June 3, 2011

Like other enveloped viruses, HIV exits its host cell enshrouded in the cell’s membrane, which contains membrane molecules such as the human leukocyte antigens (HLA). 


image: Where Cancer and Inflammation Intersect

Where Cancer and Inflammation Intersect

By Giorgio Trinchieri | April 1, 2011

Recent clinical trials have reignited the interest in simple anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin for controlling the inflammation associated with cancer. 


image: Epigenetics—A Primer

Epigenetics—A Primer

By Stefan Kubicek | March 1, 2011

Epigenetic events regulate the activities of genes without changing the DNA sequence. Different genes are expressed depending on the methyl-marks attached to DNA itself and by changes in the structure and/or composition of chromatin. 


image: Death or Damage of Dopamine Neurons

Death or Damage of Dopamine Neurons

By Bobby Thomas and M. Flint Beal | February 1, 2011

The hallmark pathology of Parkinson’s disease is the damage and death of dopamine producing neurons in the brain. 


image: Intestinal Molecular Signaling

Intestinal Molecular Signaling

By L. Caetano M. Antunes, Julian E. Davies and B. Brett Finlay | January 1, 2011

Microbes, both good and bad, can exert direct effects on host cells and vice versa. 


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