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» inflammation, biochemistry and neuroscience

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image: Inflammation, Pain, and Resolvins

Inflammation, Pain, and Resolvins

By Claudia Sommer and Frank Birklein | January 1, 2012

Not all inflammation leads to pain. Despite widespread infection followed by fever, colds rarely cause pain. But when some cytokines and certain immune cells are active near pain-sensing nerves, they trigger receptors that convey pain sensations to the brain.

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image: The Cytokine Cycle

The Cytokine Cycle

By W. Sue T. Griffin | September 1, 2011

The initiating cause of Alzheimer’s disease is still unknown. However, from our studies it’s clear that many types of neuronal damage—­­from traumatic brain injury, to epilepsy, infection, or genetic predisposition—­can activate brain immune cells—microglia and astrocytes-- promoting them to produce IL-1 and S100 inflammatory cytokines.

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image: Helpful Bacterial Metabolites

Helpful Bacterial Metabolites

By Michelle G. Rooks and Wendy S. Garrett | August 1, 2011

While gut microbiota appear to have both positive and negative impacts on our  health, in the guts of healthy, lean individuals, the good outweighs the bad.  

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image: Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

Harmful Bacterial Metabolites

By Michelle G. Rooks and Wendy S. Garrett | August 1, 2011

Gut bacteria that feed on healthy food appear to amplify the nutritional benefits of those foods. However, they also appear to amplify the undesirable effects of unhealthy food. 

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image: OPSINS: Tools of the trade

OPSINS: Tools of the trade

By Edward S. Boyden | July 1, 2011

The optogenetic toolset is composed of genetically encoded molecules that, when targeted to specific neurons in the brain, enable the electrical activity of those neurons to be driven or silenced by light. 

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image: Where Cancer and Inflammation Intersect

Where Cancer and Inflammation Intersect

By Giorgio Trinchieri | April 1, 2011

Recent clinical trials have reignited the interest in simple anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin for controlling the inflammation associated with cancer. 

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image: Stress and Inflammation

Stress and Inflammation

By Christina M. Warboys, Narges Amini, Amalia de Luca, and Paul C. Evans | February 1, 2011

Stress and inflammation Cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease and stroke, is the single greatest cause of death worldwide and is a major burden on health services and society. 

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image: Death or Damage of Dopamine Neurons

Death or Damage of Dopamine Neurons

By Bobby Thomas and M. Flint Beal | February 1, 2011

The hallmark pathology of Parkinson’s disease is the damage and death of dopamine producing neurons in the brain. 

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