Dad's genes affect dominance

Researchers find that the paternal alleles of an unusual imprinted gene regulate social behavior, while the maternal alleles affect fetal growth

By | January 26, 2011

Which parent an allele comes from may influence how dominant mice are with their peers, according to a study in the January 27th issue of Nature, providing the first evidence that an imprinted gene may regulate a social behavior.
Grb10 knockout embryos (mom-left; dad-right)
showing opposite imprinting of the parental alleles
in different tissues (expression in blue)

Photo courtesy Alastair Garfield et al and Nature
"I think this paper greatly increases the plausibility of imprinted expression underpinning adult social behavior," linkurl:Tom Moore,;http://www.ucc.ie/ucc/depts/biochemistry/staff/tmoore.html a developmental geneticist at the University College Cork in Ireland who was not involved in the research, said in an email to The Scientist. Normally, offspring inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent, both of which are expressed at similar levels in the same locations of the body. Imprinted genes, however, come with additional information from the parent of origin. The allele from mom may be turned off, for example, while the copy from dad is expressed, or vice versa. Genes are imprinted through DNA methylation or histone modification during the development of the egg and sperm. To explore the effects of gene imprinting in mice, geneticist linkurl:Andrew Ward;http://www.bath.ac.uk/bio-sci/research/profiles/ward-a.html of the University of Bath in the UK and his colleagues examined Grb10, an imprinted gene known to have maternal-specific expression that regulates cell growth. "At the outset, we had no prior expectation that we would be looking for social dominance," said Ward. But after performing a forced encounter test, where two mice are placed at each end of a narrow tube that prevents them from turning around, Ward and his group found that mice that lacked a copy of Grb10 from their father tended to "win" the encounter -- thus stood its ground as the other mouse backed away and became submissive. The researchers also found that these same mice were more likely to over-groom their peers, a sign of dominance in mice and other mammals. In addition, mice that lacked the paternal Grb10 alleles were more likely to rip out the whiskers of their genetically similar cage-mates than mice that expressed the allele, all suggesting that the Grb10 paternal allele influences social dominance, said Ward. The maternal allele of Grb10, on the other hand, was confirmed to regulate fetal growth, metabolism and fat storage. When the maternal gene was silenced, mice were often larger and heavier. Interestingly, the alleles were expressed in completely different areas of the body: The paternal copy was found in the brain, and the maternal copy in the rest of the body. It's unusual that "one imprinted gene is doing two strikingly different tasks in the body," said Ward. Normally, he explained, if a gene is imprinted, one parent's alleles are silenced while the other's are expressed. But it's not that "black and white" in this case, he added. "This is the most exciting thing I've seen in the lab in my career," said Ward, who plans to investigate the evolutionary causes of this strange phenomenon in Grb10. The results support the idea of kinship theory, for example, added Moore, which states that natural selection may favor alleles with effects that vary based on the parental origin. A.S. Garfield et al., "Distinct physiological and behavioural functions for parental alleles of imprinted Grb10," Nature, 469:534-538, 2011. Correction: This article has been updated from a previous version to correctly indicate that "winning" an encounter involves a mouse standing its ground as another mouse backs away and becomes submissive. The Scientist regrets the error.
**__Related stories:__***linkurl:Single parent genes;https://www.the-scientist.com/news/display/53862/
[15th November 2007]*linkurl:Brain diseases are genomic opposites;https://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/55599/
[6th April 2009]*linkurl:Parental biases influence brain;https://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/57548/
[8th July 2010]

Comments

Avatar of: anonymous poster

anonymous poster

Posts: 3

January 26, 2011

Okay, now to see how if the 67% identical human Grb10 is expressed similarly.
Avatar of: Mike Waldrep

Mike Waldrep

Posts: 155

January 26, 2011

Interesting!
Avatar of: Ed Allen

Ed Allen

Posts: 3

January 26, 2011

"Ward and his group found that mice that lacked a copy of Grb10 from their father tended to "win" the encounter -- thus backed away first and became submissive."\n\nIsn't winning a dominance encounter forcing the other mouse to back away and be submissive? It seems backward relative to the reported whisker damaging attacks too.\n\n\n
Avatar of: Douglas Easton

Douglas Easton

Posts: 32

January 26, 2011

I am not certain wheater the science is backward or the science writer is. Could the author comment?
Avatar of: Jef Akst

Jef Akst

Posts: 28

January 26, 2011

Thank you for pointing out this mistake. The sentence has been adjusted, and a correction notice is posted at the bottom of the story.\n\nThanks for reading!\n\n~Jef Akst\nAssociate Editor, The Scientist
Avatar of: Josue Moran

Josue Moran

Posts: 2

January 26, 2011

Can the editor please clarify the aforementioned sentence?
Avatar of: Josue Moran

Josue Moran

Posts: 2

January 26, 2011

Thank you Jef.
Avatar of: anonymous poster

anonymous poster

Posts: 1

January 26, 2011

This story is extremely interesting and reminds me of one of my cats. He is large and fat and very dominant over the other cats, over-grooming them and biting them, often ripping out their fur. Sometimes he does these at the same time. All this makes me wonder if his Grb10 signaling pathway is defective in maternal and paternal tissues.
Avatar of: anonymous poster

anonymous poster

Posts: 23

January 26, 2011

With due acknowledgement of the inadvertent error as mentioned in the earlier comments,the intended message can be deciphered accurately despite the trivial error. Therefore taking a mean dig at the author is unwarranted. More scientific comments shall be beneficial to the community, in my opinion of course. In that regard, I am interested in knowing A: Whether a cousin molecule Grb2 (that has been shown to play a role in immune cell signaling) has a redundant role in this process? b: Does Grb10 recruit different kinds of methylases and Histone deacetyl transferases? Probably the answers to these questions can be found in the original article.\nSuresh Radhakrishnan.
Avatar of: michaela bowles

michaela bowles

Posts: 1

January 27, 2011

Very dim here; I can see why with the maternal allele absent why size is increased,but why when the paternal allele is absent is dominence increased when the paternal allele determines dominence?\n\nThanks in anticipation of patience!\nMichaela
Avatar of: anonymous poster

anonymous poster

Posts: 24

January 27, 2011

This article is so badly written. Some of the worst writing I have ever seen in The Scientist. Maybe the author should read the original article too.
Avatar of: Ramesh Raghuvanshi

Ramesh Raghuvanshi

Posts: 20

January 27, 2011

Iam not scientist but what I observed from that I can say not only mother and father`s gene effect to children but Grandparent of both side also effect on children.Many children`s parents height medium but children is higher only because his mother`s father height is higher.Another example is if there is diabetes from mother side there are chances child may suffer from diabetes.I can give many example of parents forefathers gene also effect to children

January 28, 2011

Piezo electric squeezing and reflective images on solar-lunar interfering domains out of standing waves In Far Infra regions of semiblackholes Rahu and Kethu \nThe Cape Renewable Energy research center is interested in some communication domains of space antenna that can be designed in future based on their Astrogenetic observations. Their further research in Astrogenetics seems to be a surprising contribution in future genome technology.\nRahu and Kethu affecting the brain growth and Neuron behaviour:Far infra rays are biogenetic waves ranging from 6 microns to 12 microns that play the role of growing living things. The lunar rays interacted with solar rays exposed to molecular action at 8-10 is called a complex water oscillations. This resonance ionization causes of water into hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions. Hence the neuron behaviour and growth of the brain is decided by the standing wave interaction between Rahu and lunar rays which absorption and delayed activation affects the brains memory cells. The infrared waves of the sun at 3 to 10.5 microns by the lunar standing wave nodes of Rahu and Kethu forming a red reflections and blue reflections requiring a new investigation on neuron behaviour by the Biomedical nobel laureates.\nThe information of bending of light waves by the interfering under certain conditions was their point of curiosity when some naturally occurring .The expansion and contraction of the interfering spiraled polarity reversals that bend the waves due to stoke and antistoke z dynamics drives a helical force that travel at a distance and freeze at a distance. \nDelaying time action: The opposing and attractive solenoids of spiraled of opposite poles in forming a synchronous rotational z axis separations as an oscillator produces timing pulses and as they add pole shifting counter codes as they swing act as time delaying as there will be no output for clockwise motion and pulse output for each revolution of BR - Hall?s output along the circumference of magnetic ring thus formed.\nThe interfering pattern that form the spiral bending moments of acoustic clockwise and anti clockwise directions of stoke and antistoke configuration requires an investigation in the formation of Rahu and Kethu.\nA New Kind of Search for Measuring the Existence of Rahu and Kethu\nWhen famous scientist, astrophysicist Stephen Hawkings was not convinced about the existence of two semi blackholes of the solar system responsible for astro genetic interference it was a worrying problem for Sankara Velayudhan Nandakumar ,the oxford-Cambridge-Hubble-Anna team .Yet the team has the habit of solving the problems tirelessly and even one as difficult as this is at length solved though baffled again and again. Keen minds maintained endeavour to fulfill its prophecy, until one day this will be recognized\nRahu and Kethu Astrogenetic constraints of semi blackhole absorb solar and lunar waves for secondary delayed emission act along circular to ellipsoidal frequency squeezed oscillation to deal with polarity ejection in space for design and development of laser \nstimulated antenna is space research history.\n This 1995 time-lapse movie taken by the [Hubble Space Telescope] shows sprites dancing (and being blown away) above the polar regions of the Crab pulsar. Each frame represents an interval of several weeks. The sprites are at a distance of about two light-months from the pulsar, and are probably shock fronts caused by an invisible relativistic beam of charged particles. The pulsar itself is the star at bottom center. It looks like an ordinary star in a time exposure, but the optical emission is actually in the\nForm of 30Hz flashes.\nThe practical application of this research work is in communication engineering domains of space that may cover vast distance and may form space antennas to receive and to \nCommunicative optonics.\n\nThe shadow polarized ejections are thought to be simultaneously near the Dirac critical magnetic field and the Schwarzschild gravitational limit. Under these conditions there is not good cause for supposing the still-unknown relationships between the electrical and gravitational fields can be neglected. Until the gravitational and electrical fields are unified it is doubtful that a satisfactory theoretical basis exists shifted infra asymptotic free semifor explaining the Rahu and Kethu Blackholes of shadow planets of our solar system. \nThe most commonly accepted explanation for the energy deficit is that the interference ellipsoidal mirror reflection is powered by the decay of an unusually intense magnetic field rather than by rotational kinetic energy for interfering in genes initiate Astro Genetic constraints:\nThe standing waves of sun and the moon interfered on intersecting angle evolving two opposite spindomains and ejection modes at retrograde moving domains are called Rahu and Kethu. The wave is due to gravitational field of a distant mass such as Sun and the moon. The mass is in motion, so its field must be retarded.\nIn order to do that, first transform to a frame of reference that is co-moving with the source at the retarded time. In that frame of reference, and in the weak field limit, the gravitational 4-potential along the future light cone is equivalent to the simple inverse square law relationship of the Newton theory if the particle is moving at a constant velocity. It might be otherwise if the particle is accelerated. In the case of charge, there are no experimental results showing that the acceleration makes a difference, and it will be assumed that the gravitational field behaves similarly. In other words, even though the acceleration makes a vast difference in the final global solution, the retardation equations for charge do not contain any acceleration terms. The potentials are the integral of the fields, causing them to be of lower order. The acceleration terms do not appear until the\nPotential solution is differentiated.\n \nRahu and Kethu as shadow models with increase and decrease of frequencies:\nThe One reason that oscillatory shadow models have not received much attention is that the resonant frequency must decrease as the radius decreases if gravitational contraction is to supply the energy. But a repeated radius increase and decrease the resonant frequency and increase the resonant frequency correspondingly. The oscillator developed here is probably the only one in existence with that characteristic\nHowever, because it is extraordinarily difficult to observationally distinguish between rotating and oscillating point-like radiators out of ellipsoidal to circular oscillation as distance ejectors, conforming standing waves ejecting polarized domains at a distance out\nof a feedback system along the plane of hologram.\n The electrical and gravitational fields appear to be coupled in dynamic solutions. One consequence of the coupling is that a dense magnetized sphere has a specific resonant frequency that decreases to about 0.4 Hz as the radius shrinks to the Schwarzschild radius some times from ellipsoidal structure ejects domains at a distance confirming unity to polarity theory. The magnetic force between the poles of a magnetized sphere is attractive. The force at the equator is repulsive, so the magnetic field causes an equatorial bulge. Centrifugal force also causes an equatorial bulge, thus separated at distance. The energetically preferred orientation of the magnetic field is therefore parallel to the spin axis Planck?s constant is one of the quantities in the equation for the resonant frequency\n. The limiting frequency is independent of the mass of the object and all other parameters. It is a constant of physics. In being nonlinearly coupled to the gravitational potential energy of the source, gravitational contraction can supply energy to the resonant\ncausing it to break into oscillations.\nThe standing waves of sun and the moon interfered :\nThe standing waves of sun and the moon interfered on intersecting angle evolving two opposite spindomains and ejection modes at retrograde moving domains are called Rahu and Kethu.The One reason that oscillatory shadow models have not received much attention is that the resonant frequency must decrease as the radius decreases if gravitational contraction is to supply the energy. But a repeated radius increase and decrease the resonant frequency and increase the resonant frequency correspondingly. The oscillator developed here is probably the only one in existence with that characteristic.\nQuantum chromo dynamic split-up of dark and reddish regions of spirality:\nThe basic idea of this paper is to prove that there are gluons spin 1 particles from dark blue shifted (Rahu) and red shifted (Kethu) out of neutral sheet between Sun and the Moon to deal with Quasi natured zero charge from which as R value increases to a distance. They obey Quantum chromo dynamics or QCD for short and as a consequence of the renormalization by effective coupling constant by naïve scaling depends on the energy at which it is measured and decreases to zero at very shifted Blackholes of Solarhigh energies as Asymptotic freedom. The system is that moves counter clockwise in direction counter to that of infra domain movement which absorbs solar and lunar rays and emit secondary emission after a time delay e-aT a very important phenomenon for which no investigation has been carried though they take very important part in Astro genetics. \nRahu and Kethu as Like and unlike pole opposing and attractive timers:\nThey are ring type magnets positioned at 180 degree phase difference as pi shifted domains whose direction is reversed ,the time takes the south pole to\n pass through north pole in opposing directions T1 is
Avatar of: Alexandru Cosciug

Alexandru Cosciug

Posts: 16

January 29, 2011

This is not a very news information, because in August 2008 I have been informed First EMBO Conference on Centrosomes and Spindle Pole Bodies, 12-16 September 2008 Heidelberg, Germany, about this new hypothesis of paternal DNA heritage.\nAbstract: Brain and soul storming - The necessary and sufficient processes to a well function of the human body are meticulous arranged by specific organizational cells, so called process bio-managers, using interconditioned procedures, transmitted through three ways of communication: chemical or ?protein channel?, electrical or ?ion channel? and mitochondrial or ?EMF wireless channel?. The third type is out of the visible and measurable spectrum and raises a new challenge to the scientists. For this type of bio communication we bring a new theoretical hypothesis, based on the managerial multidisciplinary analysis of a cybernetic model proposed by us, by simulating the human body function with the virtual computerized system based on the management of its total knowledge and its perfect quality way of function. The main bricks used for this virtual construction are: the brain, as main bio-processor, and Eve mtDNA and Adam mtDNA, as bio-antennas. This assembly of the total knowledge, build with ?brain reasoning, biological feeling, and unlimited soul feeling?, is called by us ?main decision triangle, IQ-EQ-CQ?. The main principle of the management of the total knowledge imposes us to not neglect any information produced by man during the time, even if it seems creasy at the beginning. Because in the natural fertilisation the spermatozoids are naturally equipped with the paternal mtDNA (a veritable main bio-GPS), we consider that the paternal mitochondria DNA have a very important role in the evolution of the human being life quality and we have developed a new hypothesis, ?Adam mtDNA theory?, in addition to ?Eve mtDNA theory?.\nKeywords: mitochondria, maternal, paternal\n

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