Meet some of the people featured in the February 2018 issue of The Scientist.
Advice on authoring a textbook, popular nonfiction, or even a novel
October 1, 2012|
To a working scientist, the idea of writing a book can seem daunting. Is it possible to squeeze in writing on top of the research, teaching, and administrative responsibilities that already fill up the day? But many scientists can, and do, author books, whether they be textbooks, nonfiction for a general audience, or other literary departures from the usual grant proposals, research manuscripts, and review articles.
“It’s infinitely more work than you think, and it’s also much more satisfying,” says Anne Houtman, a behavioral ecologist and head of the School of Life Sciences at the Rochester Institute of Technology, who co-authored the textbook Environmental Science for a Changing World. “I’ve published a lot of papers, but there’s something different about holding a book in your hand,” she adds.
Sometimes books come out of teaching a course for which there is no suitable textbook. Or maybe there’s something you’ve always been curious about that you want to explore more deeply than your own research allows. “I wrote about the mystery of altruism,” says Oren Harman, chair of the Graduate Program in Science, Technology and Society at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, and the author of The Price of Altruism: George Price and the Search for the Origins of Kindness (which won a Los Angeles Times Book Prize for the best science book of 2010 and was featured in The Scientist, September 2011). “This is an issue I had been thinking about since I was a kid,” he says. “I found that kind of passion to be a great way to embark upon a writing project.”
The Scientist spoke with researchers turned authors, science journalists, book publishers, and even the editors who hold significant sway over the book you’ll end up writing. Here’s what they had to say.
Wait for tenure
For the purposes of a tenure committee, books are not considered peer-reviewed publications. Even though textbooks are often “more peer-reviewed than anything you’ll ever write again in your life,” Houtman says—“every single chapter is reviewed by a dozen academics,” in addition to editors—the work is not considered peer-reviewed, and therefore doesn’t count toward tenure at most institutions.
Plus, adds Michael G. Fisher, executive editor for science and medicine at Harvard University Press, writing a book takes up so much time, “people will wonder why you aren’t doing research.”
If you’re interested in writing for a more general audience, one way to test the waters is to write shorter pieces, such as essays for The Chronicle of Higher Education (or The Scientist), op-eds for newspapers, or even book reviews for journals. “It’s a way to kind of exercise those muscles,” says University of Minnesota evolutionary biologist Marlene Zuk, the author of several popular science books, most recently Sex on Six Legs: Lessons on Life, Love, and Language from the Insect World, from which she adapted an essay for the January 2012 issue of The Scientist. “You should know that you like doing that kind of writing, and you should be able to do it in a way that people are going to find interesting.”
Those interested in writing textbooks can also start small by writing individual chapters in edited books, adds Harvey Pough of the Rochester Institute of Technology, who has written several higher-level textbooks, including Vertebrate Life, the most widely used textbook for vertebrate zoology courses.
Prepare for endless edits
If you’re thinking about writing a textbook, keep in mind that it may never really be finished. Many textbooks, especially at the introductory level, require regular updating. “Most biology textbooks are on a 3-year cycle,” Houtman says. “That’s good and that’s bad.” On the one hand, “if it does well and you keep doing editions, then you have a revenue stream for a really long time. . . . This can be your retirement,” she says. “But that also means that as soon as you put it to press, it’s time to start preparing for the next edition.”
You should read not only how-to tomes, but books that exemplify your intended genre. This is particularly true if you want to write for a general audience, says Zuk, who is often surprised to find colleagues who are interested in writing a popular book, but have not read any. “‘Why would I have read them?’” Zuk recalls people asking. “‘I’m not part of that popular audience.’” But to get a feel for what a general audience likes, you have to become a part of it.
One of Zuk’s first editors suggested she read Malcolm Gladwell’s The Tipping Point. “She said, ‘Never mind the content; read it for the way he moves from very general comments to concrete examples and back, and how he structures that within each chapter, because he’s really good at that,’” Zuk recalls. “She was right; it really helped.”
Psychologist Robert Boice, who authored Professors as Writers: A Self-Help Guide to Productive Writing in 1990, did studies showing “that people who write every day produce vastly more, even if it’s only for 20 minutes,” says Houtman. “You don’t have the startup angst.”
Join a writing club
A good way to motivate yourself is to write with colleagues, who can not only help review your work, but can hold you accountable for keeping on schedule. “I’ve got a room booked from 9 to 11 every Tuesday and Thursday, and the rule is: we come in with our laptops; we don’t talk; we just write,” says Houtman. “Because if you don’t protect some time for writing, everything else fills it in.”
Write a proposal
Before you start looking for a publisher, you generally have to write a proposal. Different publishers and agents have different guidelines to follow, but generally, they’re looking for: a) a substantial introduction explaining the concept for the book, why it’s important, and what the market is (and what’s already on the market), as well as your contribution in terms of expertise or experience; b) a couple of sample chapters; and c) an annotated table of contents with a paragraph or two about each of the other chapters. Additional information on how you will help market the book can also be helpful.
But writing a proposal is important not just for the sake of finding a publisher; it should be considered an important exercise of book authorship. “If you do enough rigorous digging, you will have a better sense of how much is there for you and if there is enough for a book,” says Hilary Redmon, executive editor at Ecco, an imprint of publisher HarperCollins. “A carefully edited proposal serves the writer very well in writing the book.”
Be open to edits
An important part of book writing is editing. During the process, “you have to be able to hear criticism and be responsive,” Houtman says.
“Editors help with that,” says Zuk, who has thrown out entire introductions and begun them anew. “Just because you think it is something that someone absolutely has to know, it’s not necessarily the case.” Plus, Fisher adds, it’s better to hear those comments when you can still address them “than to see the criticisms assaulting you” in book reviews after you’ve published.
Work with a science writer
For textbook writing in particular, it’s often helpful to hire a science journalist who has more writing experience and often more practice communicating with a general audience. “I love working with science writers,” says Houtman, who collaborated with a Scientific American writer on a biology textbook for non-majors. “I learn so much from them about ‘just do it.’ They’re used to deadlines; they just get it done.”
Know your market
Particularly when writing textbooks, it’s important to know “who the competitors are, and how you would best them,” says Karen Hopkin, a freelance science writer who has been working for 12 years with Bruce Alberts, Martin Raff, and other biology big wigs on the widely used graduate textbook Molecular Biology of the Cell and its undergraduate version, Essential Cell Biology. This might include adding interactive features, such as quizzes at the end of each chapter, notes Hopkin, a regular contributor to The Scientist. “Is that your life passion? No, but if it’s useful for the users of the book, then you give it to them, and that makes your book more marketable.”
Know your options
Ask yourself why you’re publishing the book. “If it’s a bucket-list thing, then self-publish it,” says Chris Snook, editor-in-chief at the No Limit Publishing Group. “Why would you wait in line for 2 years to get rejected by 100 people when it’s something important to you, and you just want to do it? Self-publish it, and just determine what kind of budget you’re willing to spend to do it.”
One of the biggest advantages to going with a university press is the feedback you’ll get. “That’s what an academic publisher provides,” says Fisher. Every book published by Harvard University Press is subject to peer review and must be approved by a board of academics before hitting the presses.
University presses can also be easier to work with, and don’t require working through an agent, as commercial publishers often do. “I would recommend university presses” for a first book, says Zuk.
If you’re looking to reach a wide audience, and maybe make a little money while you’re at it, a commercial publisher is probably the best way to go. “If you’re talking commercial publishers, it can get into six figures,” Fisher says. “University presses rarely go that high.” Commercial publishers also tend to have closer relationships with bookstores and other sellers that can help publicize your book, Zuk adds.
Going with an established publisher can also help you publish more books down the road, notes Barbara Oakley, an engineering professor at Oakland University and author of Cold-Blooded Kindness, a case study of a female murderer. “If you can pursue the route to standard publication, not self-publish, that gives you a leg up on pretty much anything you might want to do in the future.” (See an essay cowritten by Oakley based on Pathological Altruism, which she coedited, and an online excerpt from the book in The Scientist’s February 2012 issue.)
As for which publisher to go with, take a look at their books and find one that seems like a good fit. “There’s a benefit to being in amongst books that are like yours, where your publisher has established a reputation for publishing books like yours,” says Fisher. “Editors will have a better sense of what’s been published in that area, [and] the potential audience.”
Get an agent
If you’re penning a novel, it’s best to get an agent. Though it will cost a little money—agents charge up to 15 percent of a deal with a publisher (and more for foreign editions)—it’s often worth it. Most commercial publishers will only work with you if you have one, but “increasingly, agents are [pitching to] university presses” as well, says Zuk.
One advantage to having an agent is his or her ability to get a foot in the door. “Agents are people that we have gotten to know over the years. They have an understanding of our taste, we have an understanding of their taste and the kind of writers they work with, so we trust them,” says publisher Redmon. “So if ‘X’ agent sends me something, and I like that agent, I’m going to read it overnight.”
Beyond that, agents can help you refine your ideas and edit your proposal, and they help negotiate the contract. “Everything’s negotiable in a contract,” Fisher says. “Agents are fighting every element of the contract that takes some of the rights away from the author.”
Finding an agent often comes through a recommendation from a colleague. If you’re searching on your own, look for those who have handled books similar to yours; they will likely be the best to find you a good book deal, Redmon says.
Get a lawyer
Once you’ve found a publisher that’s willing to strike a deal with you, especially if you’re working without an agent, hire a lawyer before you sign anything. “In the U.K. you can join The Society of Authors for £75, and they’ll then go through your contract,” says Tim Birkhead of the University of Sheffield, author of The Wisdom of Birds. (See his essay in The Scientist, March 2011.) “The contracts are written by the publisher’s lawyers,” says Houtman. “It doesn’t protect the writer, necessarily, as well as it protects the publisher.” One clause to be wary of, for example, is one in which the publisher is claiming rights to your future work. “They state that really broadly, which could really hamper you if you’re not careful,” she says.
October 19, 2012
Writing a book is a very great responsibility. One should write a book about any topic on which, a person has acquired complete knowledge and atleast have some original contribution. Summarising others' work is just equivalent to prepare notes. Even that should be prepared very jugidiously as reading a book has different impact on younger generation
October 30, 2012
Write a book? Go for it!!!
But here are some important tips based on my experience:
Choose a topic you know and love, because the effort will take time on and off for about a year.
Keep written sections short and to the point, and use anecdotes, analogies, humor, photos, diagrams, etc. No one wants to read a LONG, DULL book. Let your personality show in your writing.
How to cover the expense? Publishing a paperback book (check into getting electronic formats also) can cost more than $15,000 for a 2,000 copy first run, with other print runs likely will be needed. The best option is to have someone else pay for it. I wanted to write up humorous and instructive anecdotes about my medical training and scientific career, but who would pay to publish that? I also played chess for 40 years while trying to balance school, career, family, etc., so I put my anecdotes in among 31 anotated chess games, and offered a sample of the writing to a small chess book publisher in the New Haven, CT area. He loved it, and the book appeared in 2011. The publisher gets most of the revenues, since he has to regain his expenses, and that is fine with me -- I get a tiny royalty payment every 6 months, but I didn't write the book to make money. If you want to gamble to make a profit for yourself, you could publish and distribute your book yourself, but I wouldn't recommend that. My book is widely ditributed to major stores, and is selling in 10 countries, accomplishments entirely due to the publisher.
Before you start, look at good examples (available on Amazon.com for a few bucks). What are you aiming to produce? Relax and benefit from excellent writing examples, such as Loren Eiseley's classic collection of essays, "The Immense Journey." You should even look at my book as a much humbler but very practical example: "Chess Juggler. Balancing Career, Family and Chess in the Modern World." (You could see further video explanation on-line about how I put this book together at Authors@google james magner).
November 26, 2012
I'm a science writer with a PhD in genetics. I've been writing life science textbooks for 30 years (and I also wrote for The Scientist for 17 years). It's been wonderful. Very early on I was making more money from textbooks than teaching, so switched to writiing full time.
Much more recently I published my first narrative nonfiction book ("The Forever Fix: Gene Therapy and the Boy Who Saved It," St. Martin's Press, 2012, paperback out 1/8/13) and it was a whole different ballgame. Whereas the textbook publishers sought me out and didn't require much in the way of a proposal, I found my agent for Forever Fix and she worked with me for months crafting the 80+ page proposal. It was as meticulous as writing a grant proposal.
The big difference is that with a textbook for a large publisher, they take care of marketing and promotion. Books just sell, over and over (minus the used books of course). But with narrative nonfiction, I've had to do much of the promotion myself, and I'm not very good at it. It has been quite frustrating, but a wonderful experience in getting to know the families whose children have had gene therapy, and the researchers.
So my advice is if you are a full-time scientist, you should write for the love of it! It is a full time job. But if you use a science writer, make sure she or he gets full credit and compensation.