After implantation, the tissue developed blood vessels and became integrated into neuronal networks in the animals’ brains.
Founder, Chairman, and CEO, NeuroVigil, Age: 33
January 1, 2013|
FRANK ROGOZIENSKI/WONDERFUL MACHINEPhilip Low was born in Vienna, grew up in Paris, and went to college in Chicago. Mirroring his early-life peregrinations, Low’s research has led him from math to neuroscience to business. In the late 1990s, while completing his undergraduate mathematics degree at the University of Chicago, Low spent a summer doing cancer research at Harvard Medical School. “Having worked in math and physics for most of my undergraduate years, studying something that was alive was very refreshing,” he says.
While the experience motivated him to pursue a career in biology, he got a sense that applying his computational skills to neuroscience would be more fruitful. “What I found from neuroscientists was they were excited to have mathematicians among them,” he says.
METHODS: For graduate school, Low went to the Salk Institute for Biological Studies to study sleep patterns in zebra finches in the lab of Terry Sejnowski.1 While there he also seized upon a neuroscience problem for which math would come in handy: sleep analysis often required labor-intensive interpretations of data, and Low set out to develop an algorithm that could map sleep stages automatically. “I locked myself on the fifth floor of the Salk Institute and emerged with the solution 3 years later,” he says.
RESULTS: Low’s work on birds inspired him to develop a sleep monitoring system that—in addition to being automated—would also be less obtrusive than the usual paraphernalia of sleep labs. The Sleep Parametric EEG Automated Recognition System Algorithm (SPEARS)2 that Low and his Salk colleagues developed can process and interpret brain signals using a single input channel,3 rather than multiple electrodes taped all over a person’s scalp. An individual’s sleep pattern can be quickly organized into stages, such as slow-wave or REM, using SPEARS. Such information can be useful for purposes including detecting drug-induced disruptions to sleep or diagnosing a pathology.
“What he offered by the time he finished his PhD was the possibility of a person having a wire on their head in a much less imposing environment, so data gathering was improved,” says Donald Spencer, a researcher at Salk who, as a fellow graduate student, shared a lab bench with Low in Sejnowski’s lab. “Then the computer analysis he developed, compared to human analysis, turned out to be just as accurate. That was really very revolutionary.”
DISCUSSION: A bit of lore accompanies Low’s graduate-school accomplishments. Low says that Sejnowski, who declined to be interviewed for this story, initially discouraged the young grad student from pursuing the SPEARS project because it was too risky, leading Low to work on it in secrecy until he had results. Low also claims that he ultimately turned in a one-page thesis, but Charles Stevens, a member of Low’s thesis committee, says he remembers a longer dissertation.
Regardless of how long Low’s thesis was, Stevens says that the algorithm is reliable, and his impression is that it is “a genuine advance” for the sleep research field. Low has turned the discovery into a business, NeuroVigil, which leases its iBrain device to labs pursuing sleep research, in the study of autism or sleep disorders, for example. Low continues to push for broader applications, such as in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s research, and has formed a partnership with Stephen Hawking to develop a communication device for ALS patients who have lost the ability to speak and move.
NeuroVigil has had successful rounds of funding, and Low says it now is earning a profit. The company, which went to market in 2009, has also nabbed several entrepreneurship prizes, including $250,000 in the Draper Fisher Jurvetson Venture Challenge, and has been featured in the New York Times and other media outlets. Low says that “it’s a very exciting field, and of course my job as an inventor is to create tools that can be easily used [while keeping] the complexity in the mathematics.”
1. P.S. Low et al., “Mammalian-like features of sleep structure in zebra finches,” PNAS, 105: 9081-86, 2008. (Cited 26 times)
2. P.S. Low et al., “A new way to look at sleep,” Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, Program No. 923.19, 2005.
3. P.S. Low and T.J. Sejnowski, “Fine structure of human sleep,” Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, Program No. 14.7, 2006.
January 1, 2013
Many thanks for your interest in my work. Some minor clarifications appear to be needed. 1) The birds came from Daniel Margoliash's lab at the University of Chicago; 2) The thesis Was 1 Page. Chuck is referring to the appendix, which as I have already explained in the interview was naturally longer: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6250v3wk#page-1 ; 3) I am the sole inventor of the SPEARS algorithm: http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/8073534.html ; 4) NeuroVigil has undergone a single round of financing, on May 1st 2011: http://www.medgadget.com/2011/05/neurovigil_brain_decoding_company_gets_major_funding.html ; 5) The algorithms I am creating for the ALS project with Stephen Hawking is also a beneficiary of, use Waking EEGs as well. The abstract is available here: http://fcmconference.org/#program ; 6) Not sure about the details of the quote at the end but that is trivial; 7) The writer has been informed that Terry Sejnowski indicated he decided not to give interviews to the press for fear of being misquoted...
January 5, 2013
Genes are life’s primal organisms, evolved from RNA nucleotides by the ubiquitous natural selection. Originally they were active ONLY during daylight time, at the pre bio-metabolism era.
Thus sleep is innate for all organisms, including for the genomes, which are the template organisms evolved by the RNAs for their own survival activities, as all life evolves for the purpose of supporting the RNAs survival.
The most essential energy requirements for organisms is for the daily housecleaning of their neural system centers. As bio-metabolism evolved it furnished indirect energy for this purpose, enabling adaptable flexible sleep times for the organisms.
Learn and re-comprehend sleep…
Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
Tags: natural selection, RNAs are organisms, why we sleep
5. Natural Selection is a trait of organisms, life?
No. Natural selection is ubiquitous for ALL mass formats, all spin arrays. It derives from the expansion of the universe. All mass formats, regardless of size and type, from black holes to the smallest particles, strive to increase their constrained energy in attempt to postpone their own reconversion to energy, to the energy that fuels cosmic expansion.
6. Life is an enigma?
Life is just another type of mass array, a self-replicating mass array. Earth life is a replicating RNAs mass. It has always been and still is an RNA world. ALL Earth’s organisms are evolved RNAs, evolved for maintaining-enhancing Earth’s biosphere, for prolonging RNAs survival.
7. Cells are Earth-life’s primal organisms?
NO. Earth’s life day one was the day on which RNA began replicating. RNAs, genes, are ORGANISMS. And so are their evolved templates, (RNA and DNA) genomes, ORGANISMS, as evidenced by life’s chirality and by life’s sleep.
8. Circadian Schmircadian sleep origin?
Sleep is inherent for life via the RNAs, the primal Earth ORGANISMS originated and originally active only under direct sunlight, in their pre-biometabolism genesis era.
9. Epigenetics are heritable gene functions changes not involving changes in DNA sequence?
The “heritable or enduring changes” are epiDNAtics, not epigenetics. Alternative splicing is not epigenetics, even if/when not involving alteration of the DNA sequence. Earth life is an RNA world.
10.Genetics drive biology and culture modifications?
NO. It is culture that modifies genetics, not genetics that modifies culture. Culture modifies genetics simply via the evolutionary natural selection process of the RNA ORGANISMS. Likewise many natural genetic changes are due to aging and/or circumstantial effects on the genes and/or genomes ORGANISMS, similar to aging and/or evolutionary processes in monocell communities or in multicelled organisms.
SCIENCE SHOULD UNFREEZE. SCIENCE SHOULD ADJUST ITS VISION, COMPREHENSION AND CONCEPTS.
Dov Henis (Comments From 22nd Century)
Seed of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity