The nationwide experiment will initially include around 100,000 volunteers.
Nobel Laureate Jerome Karle has passed away at age 94.
June 17, 2013|
WIKIMEDIA, US NAVY, JOHN F. WILLIAMSChemist Jerome Karle, who shared the 1985 Nobel Prize in Chemsitry for his help in developing the now-ubiquitous imaging technique of X-ray crystallography, died earlier this month (June 6) at the Leewood Healthcare Center in Annandale, Virginia. He was 94.
“[Molecular] structures are solved all over the world on a daily basis,” Louis Massa, a professor of physics and chemistry at Hunter College in Manhattan and a collaborator with Karle on more recent research told The New York Times. “It’s one of those things that’s taken for granted now.”
Karle developed the technique with colleague Herbert Hauptman, with whom he had attended City College in New York in the 1930s. Following World War II, the duo took a mathematical approach to problem of imaging individual molecules, publishing their initial X-ray crystallography results—based on the pattern of light reflected when X-ray beams are shined on a crystalized molecule—in the 1950s. But their work was not immediately accepted.
“In the beginning, people didn’t understand what my father was saying,” Karle’s daughter Louise Karle Hanson told the NYT, adding that she could “remember his frustration.”
But after Karle’s wife Isabella joined his team and used the new technique to unveil the structures of previously intractable molecules, “it started to get a lot of attention,” Isabella Karle told the NYT.
The use of X-ray crystallography accelerated rapidly in the 70s as advances in computer science supported the mathematical calculations required for extracting structural patterns from the light patterns. Today, it is widely used by labs around the world. In 1985, the Nobel committee noted that “knowledge of the exact molecular structure is absolutely necessary . . . in order to understand the nature of chemical bonds, the function of molecules in biological contexts, and the mechanism and dynamics of reactions.”
Karle is survived by his wife and daughter Louise, as well as two other daughters and four grandchildren.
(Hat tip to GenomeWeb)
June 17, 2013
Can Jerome Karle be described as the "Father of Crystallography"? When I was an undergraduate in 1953-'56, we were told (not taught, just told) about the work of William Lawrence Bragg and his father William Henry Bragg. Later, I came to know of the work of Kathleen Lonsdale, Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin and a number of others. I don't think Jerome Karle stands head and shoulders above them. So, my contention is, there is no one scientist who can be given the title "Father" of this area of science.
Not being familiar with Jerome Karle's work, I am also intrigued by the sentence in this article: "X-ray crystallography results—based on the pattern of light reflected when X-ray beams are shined on a crystalized molecule". Does any crystal "reflect" X-rays? Or is it low-angle X-ray scattering that the author is talking about?
June 18, 2013
"Father" of crystallography? Two other physicists, father and son, The Braggs, were awarded Nobel,"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays" in 1915! So who is "father(s)" and who is "son(s)"? A distorted, possibly erroneous, account of the development of tools and techniques of this very improtant subject for biological and physical sceinces.