The nationwide experiment will initially include around 100,000 volunteers.
In the long-fought battle against baldness, researchers are finally identifying molecular pathways that can be manipulated to generate new hair follicles.
September 1, 2013|
ANDRZEJ KRAUZEFor some men, few things are more worrisome than the daily sight of an ever-receding hairline in the bathroom mirror, or the peach-fuzz feel of a thinning crown. This creeping nemesis—known as male-pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia—emerges in genetically predisposed individuals when a by-product of testosterone called dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causes hair follicles on the scalp to shrink, producing ever thinner hairs, until the follicles eventually lose the capacity to produce hair that protrudes above the surface of the skin.
For the moment, there are few treatment options. The only two approved by the US Food and Drug Administration are minoxidil (Rogaine), a vasodilator thought to prevent or slow follicle miniaturization by increasing nutrient supply, and finasteride (Propecia), which achieves the same goals by blocking the conversion of testosterone into DHT. Research has shown that both can prevent or slow hair loss, and sometimes induce regrowth, by rescuing follicles that have recently begun to miniaturize. But neither can revive totally shrunken follicles. And while relocating healthy follicles to barren patches can solve the problem, hair transplant procedures are expensive and invasive.
The ultimate victory, when it comes to the long-fought battle against baldness, would be to find a way to trick the body into creating brand-new hair follicles.
Researchers first raised the possibility in the 1950s, when they observed new hair follicles forming during wound healing in rabbits and mice, but the work was later discredited. Then, in 2007, George Cotsarelis, a dermatologist at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine, spotted hairs growing in the middle of small cuts they’d made in the skin of adult mice. “We figured out they were de novo hair follicles formed in a process that looked a lot like embryogenesis,” says Cotsarelis.
It turns out that the wound-healing process causes skin cells to dedifferentiate, providing a limited time window during which those cells can be persuaded to form new hair follicles. Even more intriguingly, the researchers also found that inhibiting Wnt signaling during this window reduced follicle neogenesis, while overexpressing Wnt molecules in the skin increased the number of new follicles (Nature, 447:316-20, 2007). Cotsarelis and his colleagues had discovered a potential way to generate new hair follicles.
PureTech Ventures, a Boston-based venture capital group, snapped up the research even before the paper had come out. PureTech’s Daphne Zohar, David Steinberg, and Bernat Olle had previously recruited Cotsarelis to help explore commercial opportunities arising from dermatological research. Having evaluated hundreds of existing patents without finding anything to form a company around, Cotsarelis began to reveal the molecular machinery behind follicular regeneration in mice—a finding with obvious commercial potential. “I thought, gee, this is perfect for PureTech,” he recalls. In 2006, Cotsarelis, Zohar, Steinberg, Olle, and several other scientists cofounded a company called Follica to develop new combination therapies to induce follicle neogenesis.
Although Follica has released few details on their proprietary procedure, the general idea is clear: their patented minimally invasive “skin perturbation” device removes the top layers of skin, causing the underlying skin cells to revert to a stem-like state, after which a molecule is applied topically to direct the formation of new hair follicles.
Indeed, Follica has already done preclinical and clinical trials, says Olle, “all of which confirm that we can consistently create new hair follicles in mice and in humans. As far as I know, no other approach has been able to achieve that.”
News of the progress has attracted strong interest from the public, with comments piling up below online articles about Follica and serving as de facto message boards for the science-savvy bald community to exchange expressions of hope and skepticism—and to speculate about when the “cure” might hit the market. Earlier this year, Cotsarelis’s group sparked another comment frenzy by demonstrating that a protein called fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9), which is secreted by gamma delta (γδ) T cells in the dermis, plays a key role in the formation of new follicles during wound healing in adult mice.
Very little is known about the mechanism of hair follicle neogenesis besides the Wnt family, so the discovery
of Fgf9 was very important.
When Cotsarelis and his collaborators inhibited Fgf9, fewer new follicles formed compared to controls. And when the researchers induced overexpression of Fgf9, new follicle formation increased 2–3-fold compared with normal expression. That’s because Fgf9 initiates a feedback loop in wound fibroblasts that amplifies the signaling factors required for follicle neogenesis, explains Cotsarelis. Importantly, even when the researchers added Fgf9 to wounds in knockout mice engineered to lack γδ T cells (which are rare in humans), they observed increased Fgf9 expression in fibroblasts—and hair regeneration (Nature Medicine, 19:916-23, 2013).
“Very little is known about the mechanism of hair follicle neogenesis besides the Wnt family, so the discovery of Fgf9 was very important,” says Luis Garza, a dermatologist at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine who has previously collaborated with Cotsarelis but was not involved in this research. “There are probably a whole panoply of agents which control regeneration,” but this study demonstrates Fgf9’s potential as a baldness therapy.
The next step is to test the effects of Fgf9 on human skin in xenograft models and then in the clinic. “If results hold up in humans, we could expect a several-fold increase in new follicles beyond what we were already accomplishing,” says Olle.
There is a long way to go, of course, and Garza points out that “there are myriad questions regarding moving Fgf9 to human use.” But the recent advances by Cotsarelis and Follica are raising fresh shoots of hope for people who are losing or have already lost their hair. For Cotsarelis, that means more e-mails from interested members of the public, something he’s gotten used to over the last 5 years.
“I’ve learned to accept that I’m the baldness guy,” he says. “Everybody asks about it, but I don’t get sick of it. It’s nice to work in an area that people care about.”
March 16, 2015
Hi , As I read the above article relating a deep research on the causes and solution of Male Pattern Baldness . I read the above research done on the matter. Before I comment on this research I would like to share my views on all of the researches done by the Thousands of Scientists , Doctors & Researchers during the past 100 years or more on tracing the causes of Male Pattern Baldness and then curing it according to the results of their achieved 'splendid' research works . Actualy essence of their work never solved the problem to get rid of M.P. Baldness nor these were the right diagnosis of M.P.B. So FDA and other authorities participated their role to approve these Fake & Ordinary Treatments for marketting these products as the treatments of M.P.B. When I say 'other authorities ' it meant always those administrations who never worked theirselves to check and test the new products by their own means , but they always follow and copy the tests done before by the authority who worked first to approve the new medicines and treatments . So all these Authorities approved two Steroids 'Minoxidil' 'Finasteride' as the medicines used topically for prevention and slowing the process of hair thinning , instead of the right treatments of Male Pattern Baldness . Why these authorities decided to approve these temporary treatments ? Because they never found the right answere to prevent the disease of M.P.B. from those thousands of Researchers , Scientists or Doctors who spent Billions of Dollars and centuries of years on tracing the causes of this baldness . Each research ended at a common comment that ' Still the right cause of M. P. B is unknown and there are several other reasons of ultimate baldness'. Now it is confirmed that they never found the exact reasons of baldness and all of their reasearches were not on the right path. As everybody knows the action of any steroid on human body , that always it is accepted as a temporary treatment and it should not be continued regularly , otherwise , it may cause new disabilities . I ask to the authorities ' why they allow to use Minoxidil & Finasteride as the preventing products of M. P. B. if they knew that its regular use may affect negatively on other organs of the body especially enlargement of ears , nose and other organs of the face. And secondly it is printed on the unit box of the product that ' if the product is discontinued the gained result will be revert back '. So to deceive the innocent suffrers of Baldness and to benefit the Multi National companies these fake tretments were approved illegaly.
The main target of my research was that the previous researches did not get a single reason which cause M. P. B. , they diagnosed that there were several reasons of this disease. This was the first point which accelerated me to work on it , that if each of the sufferer of M. P. B. goes through a similar situation to loose his hair , First thinning of hair , then baldness starts from the middle of his scalp , then the sides of his forehead then it goes through the forehead and crown . The shedding of hairline works in a common manner then how every one faces different reasons of his baldness. So I thought it is most important first to trace which is that single reason ?
I read the previous researches which claimed conflict comments that :
1. M. P. B. is due to the excess production of Testosterones . So the intakes should be avoided which enhance testosterone level in the body .
2. The persons who have Thick hair their testosterone level is found higher than the balded persons.
You can confirm both arguments and esssence of conflicting statements of the respectable Researchers.
It is impossible to treat a disease unless you find the exact reasons of that disease.
So I worked on it and reached to a Single Factor which causes Male Pattern Baldness.
According to my research :
Sebum in the hair bulb is the food of a hair . The normal level of sebum results the normal & healthy hair .
Whenever the sebum level is disturbed the growth of a hair is disturbed . So the Male Pattern Baldness occurs whether sebum level is raised or it comes down in the hair follicle.
1. If the sebum level rises it tends to block the pore of the epidermis from which the root of an hair gets Oxygen regularly . Because Oxygen is the second essential food of a hair . When the supply of oxygen is blocked due to the excess of sebum level the growth of hair is disturbed resulting thinning of hair first , then ultimate death of the follicle occurs , because it could not get its regular primary food i.e; Oxygen .
This excess production of sebum is due to the excess production of Testosterone Harmones.
2. The second portion of this single cause of Male Pattern Baldness is when sebum level comes down from the normal level . The reason of this reduction of sebum level is caused due to the excess conversion of DHT level. When excess amount of Dihydro Testosterone harmones are converted from Testosterones the sebum level comes down . Because sebum in the hair follicles of scalp is the main food of producing DHT. So when DHT level rises upto a normal level in a human body the hair follicles in the scalp start shrinking . When a hair can not get one of its two primary foods i.e; sebum then its growth is disturbed and as a result thinning of hair starts . On the other hand as the DHT level continues increasing sebum in the hair follicle continuously decreased unless it is shrinked and comes to its death . This follicle death means the working of follicle dies because it is shrinked and dried to its last level but exists shrinked in the skin causing complete baldness.
This is my research on a single cause of Male Pattern Baldness , and it is common in all sufferers of this disease. So it is important to balance both the Testosterone & DHT levels in the body to prevent from baldness before it attacks or to control it from the very beginning stage. And this could be possible only by the control of oral intakes not by any topically used chemicals.
Now comes another fraud which is being excercised by the Big Multinational Companies in the shape of marketting their Chemical Based products in Oil , Lotion or Cream form as 'DHT Blockers' . These companies claim that if these chemical based cosmetics products are used topically on scalp , it controls the production of DHT or block DHT to attack on scalp. What a non-sense kind of joke to deceive innocent sufferers of M. P. B. that a casmetic product if applied on skin can control or block production of DHT. While DHT is the strongest level of Testosterone harmone which is completely produced or reduced by the Internal machinery of a human. Look the cruelty of FDA or similar authorities that they approved these topically used cosmetics as Harmone Blockers or to Reduce the production of Harmones (DHT).
The most critical and helpless situation is this that thousands of Medical organizations are working in the world but none of them took notice of this Fraud.
Here I complete the First stage of my Research regarding Male Pattern Baldness Its Single Cause And Its single Treatment for Every One.
This first portion of my Articles includes ' The Single Cause Of M. P. B.' I will open 'The Single Treatment ' of my research in my next article soon.
At the end I will comment only on single phrase of Respected member of the above Organization to whome I am replying my this comment in the shape of my Research on the matter .
'That according to his knowledge nobody in the world has done to compete the fear of baldness or their organization is the only who is producing the exact treatment of Male Pattern Baldness.'
Sir , I say with respect to all of my coalleagues here in the forum that I have produced successfuly the Single Treatment of M. P. B. For everyone , and successfully completed the trials on 25 persons initially of ages between 25 to 60 years suffering from M. P. B. Each of my patients got the similar results and got successfully their lost hair back with a common style of hair line growth without any difference of age. Only the strength or growth rate varied as it differed in their existing natural hairs. Moreover , the users of my product is increasing in hundreds every week .
The dead ( shrinked ) cells start regenerating from the very first day of its use and the new hair start coming out of the scalp in 1 to 3 days . Initially 4 colours of new hair start growing .
1. Natural shade of a person owns .
2. Grey ( white) hair , if a person has already grey hair .
3. Transparent hair ( thick vellus hair ) .
4. Vellus ( golden ) Hair .
Only around 10 % of Vellus ( golden ) hair survive.
100% of Tranparent ( thick vellus ) hair survive and turn into the natural shade or grey hair in 4 to 6 months , and become thicker as of the existing healthy hair.
The hair of Natural & Grey shades survive 100%.
The growth rate in start is between 0.5 to 1 cm per month , and gradually it increases to 1 to 1.5 cm per month.
The 50% of the scalp is covered in 6 to 8 months and the rest is covered in 12 to 18 months.
My treatment is topically used , based mostly on herbal extracts . The application is once a week or sometimes twice a week , the days of application are fixed for every one given in a printed chart .
Hope it is sufficient for a single shift of reading . I will discuss all of the details in my next articles.