From extending lifespan to bolstering the immune system, the drug’s effects are only just beginning to be understood.
A study documents boys with autism who were exposed to elevated levels of testosterone, cortisol, and other hormones in utero.
June 4, 2014|
WIKIMEDIA, MIRMILLONCompared to boys without autism, males with the developmental disorder may have been exposed to higher levels of testosterone, cortisol, and other hormones in the amniotic fluid that surrounded them in their mother’s womb, according to a team of European researchers.
The scientists compared hormone concentrations in amniotic fluid samples from 128 boys with autism that were born between 1993 and 1999 in Denmark, which keeps comprehensive records and biological samples from every citizen, to samples that were collected from 217 Danish boys who did not have the developmental disorder. The samples collected from the mothers of the boys that were later diagnosed with autism tended to contain higher levels of testosterone, three other sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione), and the stress hormone cortisol. “In the womb, boys produce about twice as much testosterone as girls, but compared with typical boys, the autism group has even higher levels,” Simon Baron-Cohen, director of the Autism Research Centre at Cambridge University and lead author on the new Molecular Psychology paper, told The Guardian. “It’s a significant difference and may have a large effect on brain development."
The researchers now plan to follow up on the study by examining hormone levels in the amniotic fluid that surrounded girls who were later diagnosed with autism. “From this study we can’t say this is causal, but it is telling us that part of the biology of autism begins prenatally,” Baron-Cohen said.
In their paper, the authors wrote that the findings support the idea that fetal steroid hormones may be important epigenetic programming mechanisms for autism, a disorder that strikes males disproportionately and for which researchers have yet to identify an underlying biological cause.
“Despite a growing awareness of the biological and genetic nature of autism, there is currently no agreed biological or genetic marker for autism, with diagnosis made on the basis of early developmental history and behavioral criteria,” Research Autism’s Richard Mills, who was not involved in the study, told BBC News. “So research that sheds light on this specific area is critical to our understanding of this mysterious and highly complex group of conditions.”
June 4, 2014
Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations sometimes fail due to epigenetic effects on the GnRH pulse that link nutrient stress and social stress via olfactory/pheromonal input to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genome of all mammals. See for review From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.
Examining the downstream affects on behavior of hormones regulated by epigenetic effects on GnRH seems to have led others to ignore the link from social odors to behavior in humans and their link to Mosaic Epigenetic Dysregulation of Ectodermal Cells in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
"...OR2L13 has been found in two previous studies to demonstrate either altered DNA methylation in blood  or gene expression in brain  in individuals with ASD."
"Olfaction and odor receptors [such as OR2L13] provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000)."
It is unfortunate that such a clear evolutionary trail has been ignored in the context of atypical hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors.