The finding confirms that a cluster of cells that directs the fate of other cells in the developing embryo is evolutionarily conserved across the animal kingdom.
Raising a semi-terrestrial species on land highlights the role of developmental plasticity in the evolutionary transition from water to land.
August 28, 2014|
WIKIMEDIA, MITTERNACHT90Raising Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus), or dinosaur eels, on land lends the semi-terrestrial fish physiological and behavioral changes that may reflect similar changes experienced by extinct species that made the transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats millions of years ago, according to a study published in Nature this week (August 27).
As a postdoc at McGill University in Montreal, Emily Standen—who’s now based at the University of Ottawa—raised 111 two-month-old bichirs in laboratory environments that forced them to use their fins to walk on a substrate rather than propel them through the water. After raising the fish in such conditions for eight months, she compared the experimental animals’ development to that of bichirs of the same age that she had reared in aquaria. “The bones in the pectoral girdle—the bones that support the fins—changed their shape,” Standen told The Verge. “And their clavicles became elongated.” In addition the land-reared fish behaved differently than their water-raised kin. “Fish raised on land walk with a more effective gait,” Standen said. “They plant their legs closer to the body’s midline, they lift their heads higher, and they slip less during that walking cycle.”
The results may offer a glimpse into some of the developmental changes that occurred in fish species, such as the extinct Eusthenopteron, which likely made the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life more than 300 million years ago. “The results cast light on a factor that may have had a part in the origin of tetrapods,” Per Ahlberg, a paleontologist at Uppsala University in Sweden who was not involved in the study, told Science.
The changes seen in the land-reared bichirs, which breathe air and walk across land for short distances in their native habitats, might model the propensity for physiological changes—termed “developmental plasticity”—that attended the ancient fish species as they started living in terrestrial environments for extended periods. “Developmental plasticity can facilitate the first couple of stages that can ultimately lead to a massive evolutionary transition,” Armin Moczek, an evolutionary developmental biologist at Indiana University, Bloomington, who was not involved with the work told Science.
Standen told The Verge that she now plans to rear the fish in terrestrial environments for longer periods of time to monitor changes in the animals’ physiology, especially in their muscles. “It’s quite possible that larger changes would occur if we kept them on land for longer,” she said. “The big dream is to do this over several generations.”
August 29, 2014
I fail to see how this models evolution in any meaningful way until the researchers show that some of these adaptations are passed on to their offspring. Adaptation to one's environment is nothing new: the muscles we use get stronger; those who consume more calcium have stronger bones. It's not evolution unless it's hereditary.
August 29, 2014
I think their point is to demonstrate that fish could conceivably have made the transition to living on land for whatever reason, which would then favor the selection for mutations that were beneficial to terrestrial fish. They wouldn't start to evolve for life on land unless they were already on land and needed to be better suited to it.
September 6, 2014
Do you have any idea how many different species of fish it is thought to have converted to terrestrial life or if it all started from mutations and natural selection in one species? The video did show two fish capable of surviving outside water, so I'm assuming it is predicted that there were quite a few perhaps explaining the great variation that there is on Earth.