The baby cephalopod looks and behaves like an adult from the moment it emerges from the egg.
Symbiotic bacteria in Caribbean reef sponges store polyphosphate granules, possibly explaining why phosphorous is so scarce in coral reef ecosystems.
July 1, 2015|
IMAGE COURTESY OF ANDIA CHAVES-FONNEGRA
F. Zhang et al., “Phosphorus sequestration in the form of polyphosphate by microbial symbionts in marine sponges,” PNAS, 112:4381-86, 2015.
Fan Zhang, a graduate student in Russell Hill’s lab at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, was using microscopy to study how Caribbean coral reef sponges process nitrogen. But the sponges autofluoresced so brightly that their nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts were difficult to see. To detect the bacteria, Zhang applied a blue fluorescent stain called DAPI, but to his surprise, he saw something else: bright yellow dots.
An Internet search suggested that polyphosphate—chains of phosphate molecules—could be the cause, and indeed, with specific extraction methods and scanning electron microscopy, Zhang’s team observed polyphosphate granules that accounted for up to 40 percent of the phosphorus in three sponge species. To find the source, the researchers cultured the symbiotic cyanobacteria, finding that they contained not only polyphosphate granules but the genes necessary to make them.
Sponges were already known to provide carbon and nitrogen to the reef community. The symbiont-synthesized polyphosphate granules sequestered in the sponges now made it clear “that sponges are right at the center of cycling of phosphorus in coral reef ecosystems,” Hill says.
Sponges may serve as sinks that remove phosphorus from the ecosystem, says Fleur van Duyl of the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research. This could explain why phosphorus is considered the limiting nutrient on some reefs, she adds. Filling in the remaining details of the sponge phosphorus cycle could help researchers predict what might happen to the nutrient balance on reefs as the climate changes and sponges become more prevalent there, Hill says.
July 2, 2015
I am reminded of the legendary scientist, the late Professsor Harland Wood:
“Harland Wood was a pioneer in studying the role of pyrophosphate and polyphosphate as energy sources. It was at one tme believed that the energy contained in the anhydride bond of pyrophosphate is not utilized efficiently by cells. However, Harland Wood, together with Nelson Phillips, showed this not to be true by the isolation and characterization of bacterial enzymes that utilize pyrophosphate in reaction with oxaloacetate, with phosphoenolpyruvate, and with fructose-6-phosphate. Wood further showed that a bacterial glucokinase utilizes polyphosphate much more effectively than ATP in the reaction with glucose.
(Lightly paraphrased excerpt from "Harland Goff Wood, 1907—1991; A Biographical Memoir by David A. Goldthwait And Richard W. Hanson; National Academy of sciences, 1996)”