From extending lifespan to bolstering the immune system, the drug’s effects are only just beginning to be understood.
The catalytic domain of an RNA-editing enzyme is fused with RNA-binding proteins.
July 1, 2016|
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) influence, among other things, the stability, splicing, nuclear export, and translation of their target transcripts. Identifying RBP-RNA interactions is thus of great value for understanding gene expression, cellular functions, and more.
A common method for identifying RBP targets is to cross-link and immunoprecipitate the RBP-RNA complexes from cell extracts. However, says Roy Parker of the University of Colorado Boulder, a persistent problem “is how to do this on [small] specialized subsets of cells.” After all, explains Michael Rosbash of Brandeis University in Massachusetts, “one can simply not do biochemistry on tiny amounts of material.”
Rosbash and his team have thus come up with what he calls “a geneticist’s work-around.” In his team’s approach, called Targets of RNA-binding proteins Identified By Editing (TRIBE), RBPs are fused to the catalytic domain of an RNA-editing enzyme from fruit flies. The enzyme converts adenosine nucleotides into inosines, which appear as guanosines in sequencing readouts. Identifying the RBP targets, then, is a simple case of extracting and sequencing RNA and looking for aberrant Gs (Cell, 165:742-53, 2016).
© GEORGE RETSECK
The team has successfully applied the technique to three different RBPs and has shown it to work with as few as 150 fly neurons, though Rosbash suggests it could work with even fewer. “In principle, it’s totally compatible with single cells,” he says.
Marvin Wickens of the University of Wisconsin–Madison and colleagues devised a similar technique called RNA Tagging. The method fuses RBPs to an enzyme that adds uridines to the ends of associated transcripts (Nat Methods, 12:1163-70, 2015).
© GEORGE RETSECK
“Both [approaches] have pluses and minuses,” says Parker, who is experimenting with the two techniques in his own lab. And in the future, he suggests, it may even be possible to combine them, enabling researchers “to look at two [RBPs] at once.”
|TAGGING TECHNIQUE||RNA-BINDING PROTEIN FUSED WITH||ENZYME FUNCTION||SAMPLE PROCESSING FOR SEQUENCING||SINGLE-CELL ANALYSIS|
|Rna Tagging||Poly(U) polymerase PUP-2 from C. elegans||Adds uridines at the 3’ end of bound RNAs||A specialized cDNA library is made with “U-select” primers, which home in on U-tags.||
Theoretically possible, but because U-tag library protocol is not a standard approach
for high-throughput sequencing, it may
|TRIBE||Catalytic domain of RNA-editing enzyme ADAR from D. melanogaster||
Converts adenosines to inosines at sites targeted
by RNA-binding proteins
Standard RNA extraction
and preparation protocols
|Possible in principle; TRIBE uses the same standard deep-sequencing technique that has been applied to single cells.|