Infographic: Anticipation Versus Confrontation

The brain is activated differently when it’s contemplating, rather than directly facing, a threat.

By Catherine Offord | January 1, 2018

© EVAN OTO/SCIENCE SOURCE

Researchers trained participants in two studies to associate visual cues with a mild electric shock to the finger. Following a visual cue suggesting a shock might be imminent—i.e., during threat anticipation—the volunteers’ brains showed higher activity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a region of the brain associated with defensive responses in uncertain situations. When participants were shocked—i.e., during threat confrontation—they showed higher activity in their amygdalae, two almond-shaped clusters of nuclei associated with fear
and emotional stimulation.

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